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Integrating Sources. ENG 102. Introducing Quotations. Is it O.K. to drop a quotation in a paper without connecting it to one of my sentences?. Counter Questions. Is it O.K. to bring an unfamiliar person into a conversation without introducing him or her?

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Introducing quotations
Introducing Quotations

  • Is it O.K. to drop a quotation in a paper without connecting it to one of my sentences?


Counter questions
Counter Questions

  • Is it O.K. to bring an unfamiliar person into a conversation without introducing him or her?

  • Is it O.K. to tell a child to cross a rushing stream without a bridge for him/her to cross?

  • Do books and journal articles leave quotations hanging as separate sentences?


Building bridges from research to writing
Building Bridges from Research to Writing

  • Sources are carefully gathered

    • Should be carefully integrated into writing.

  • The reader needs transitions to quotations and paraphrases:

    • Readers are especially disoriented by quotations at beginning of paragraphs.


Bridges from research to writing
Bridges from Research to Writing.

  • Example of a poor transition to a quotation.

    When I first read Emma, I was confused by the way Austen used the word charade. “Charades are word puzzles in which one guesses at the individual syllables and then combines them to make the whole word” (416). Once I read that, I had a much better idea of what was going on in the chapter.


Bridges from research to writing1
Bridges from Research to Writing.

  • Better transition to a quotation:

    Contemporary readers ofEmma, are frequently confused by Austen’s use of the word charade. As Frances Ferguson points out, the early nineteenth- century version of charades is a riddle-like word game “in which one guesses at the individual syllables and then combines them to make the whole word” (Ferguson 416). Once the reader understands what kind of charade the characters are discussing, then he or she will comprehend why Harriet is creating a book of charades and will relate Harriet’s new hobby to such contemporary activities as collecting autographs or scrapbooking.


Bridges from research
Bridges from Research

  • Should I quote any information I want to use from a source?


Paraphrasing and summarizing
Paraphrasing and Summarizing

  • No! Not all evidence should be quoted.

    • Factual information especially

    • APA & CSE formats especially.

  • Most material from sources should be paraphrased or summarized.


Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing

  • What is paraphrasing?

  • What is a paraphrase?


Paraphrasing1
Paraphrasing

  • A paraphrase is

    • A restatement of a passage from a source

      • In your own words

      • In a different syntax (sentence structure) from the original

      • About the same length as the original passage

      • That retains the ideas and facts of the original without distortion or your opinions

      • That is followed by a citation.


Summaries
Summaries

  • What is a summary?


Summarizing
Summarizing

  • A summary is a restatement of the main idea of a passage from a source

    • In your own words

    • In a different syntax (sentence structure) from the original

    • Shorter than the original passage

    • That omits details.

    • That retains the ideas of the original without distortion or your opinions

    • That is followed by a citation.


Summarizing and plagiarism
Summarizing and Plagiarism

  • Major pitfall to avoid when paraphrasing:

    Plagiarism


Plagiarism
Plagiarism

  • What is plagiarism?


Defining plagiarism
Defining Plagiarism

  • According to a recent English handbook, plagiarism “is passing off someone else’s insights or words as your own” (Fulwiler and Hayakawa 110).


The art of careful quoting
The Art of Careful Quoting

  • How do I quote correctly so that I avoid plagiarism?


Format for short quotations
Format for Short Quotations

  • Any quotation of 3 or more words from a source must be in quotation marks and followed by a citation.


Format for long quotations
Format for Long Quotations

  • In the case of a long quotation (5 or more lines of prose, 4 or more lines of poetry,

    • Omit the quotation marks and indent the quoted passage.

    • Follow the quotation with a citation.


Example of indented quotation
Example of Indented Quotation

  • In the following passage, Austen summarizes Mr. Darcy’s insulting proposal of marriage to Elizabeth:

    He spoke well; but there were feelings besides those of the heart to be detailed, and he was not more eloquent on the subject of tenderness than of pride. His sense of her inferiority -- of its being a degradation -- of the family obstacles which judgment had always opposed to inclination, were dwelt on with a warmth which seemed due to the consequence he was wounding, but was very unlikely to recommend his suit. (PP 332)


Example of plagiarism
Example of Plagiarism

  • Original Passage:

    • Since 1971 the pound has been decimal, with 100 pence. Before then, it was divided into 20 shillings, and shillings into 12 pence. As with U. S. currency there were coins: A crown was 5 shillings and a half crown half that; there was also a sixpence, and a farthing (a quarter penny). (Ferguson 411-12)

  • Plagiarized Version:

    • Since 1971 the pound has been based on a decimal system, with 100 pence in each pound. Before 1971 the pound was made up of 20 shillings and each had 12 pence. Like U.S. currency there were coins in the English system. A crown had 5 shillings and a half crown half that. . . . (Ferguson 411-12)


Plagiarized passages in quotation marks
Plagiarized Passages in Quotation Marks

  • “Since 1971 the pound has been” based on a decimal system, with 100 pence in each pound. Before 1971 the pound was made up of 20 shillings and each had 12 pence. Like U.S. currency “there were coins” in the English system. A crown had “5 shillings and a half crown half that. . . .” (Ferguson 411-12)

  • WHOOPS!


  • Better paraphrase
    Better Paraphrase

    • Since 1971 the pound has been decimal, with 100 pence. Before then, it was divided into 20 shillings, and shillings into 12 pence. As with U. S. currency there were coins: A crown was 5 shillings and a half crown half that; there was also a sixpence, and a farthing (a quarter penny). (Ferguson 411-12)

    • For centuries, the English pound was made up of 20 shillings, each of which was worth 12 pence. Then in 1971, the basis for the pound was converted to an easier-to-use decimal system. Pounds, instead of being comprised of 240 pence, are now worth 100 pence. Like most other monetary systems, the British system has included coins. For example, each crown was originally worth 5 shillings. Half a crown was worth 2½ shillings. Other British coins were the farthing, which is one fourth of a penny, and the sixpence. (Ferguson 411-12)


    Practicing paraphrasing and summarizing
    Practicing Paraphrasing and Summarizing

    • Write a summary of each of the passages you have found through your research.

      • Read the passage carefully.

      • Put it aside.

      • Write a preliminary summary.

      • Place a citation after the summary.

      • Check the summary against the source at least twice.

      • Have a classmate check your summary for undocumented quotations.

      • Check your summary again and hand it in.