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The Great War. August 1, 1914 – November 11, 1918. The Major Players. The Central Powers. The Entente . The German Empire The Austro-Hungarian Empire AKA “The Habsburg Empire” The Ottoman Empire AKA “Turkey” Bulgaria (October 1915) And on the other side…. The Russian Empire

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the great war

The Great War

August 1, 1914 – November 11, 1918

the major players
The Major Players

The Central Powers

The Entente

  • The German Empire
  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire
    • AKA “The Habsburg Empire”
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • AKA “Turkey”
  • Bulgaria (October 1915)
  • And on the other side…
  • The Russian Empire
  • The French Empire
  • The British Empire
  • Serbia
  • Belgium
  • Japan
  • Greece
  • Italy (1915)
  • Portugal (1916)
  • Brazil (1916)
  • Romania (1916)
  • ‘Merica (unofficial status)
casualties what does that mean
Casualties: What does that mean?
  • France and Germany lost more than 3% of their populations
    • France – 78% of its forces suffered casualties
    • Germany – 56% of its forces suffered casualties
  • Deaths
    • 9 million died as a direct result of the war
    • 6 million died indirectly
  • In all
    • 15 million seriously injured
    • 7 million taken as POWs
  • Over 30 million casualties

Not including civilian deaths!

Or genocide.

what got the civilians the usual
What got the civilians? The usual.
  • Hunger
  • Disease
  • Flu epidemic of 1918-1919
  • The Armenian genocide
  • The Russian Revolution (and subsequent civil war)
the first total war
The First Total War
  • The military goes to the front and fights(duh).
  • The civilians produce materials for war
    • Weapons and ammunition
    • Food
    • Transportation
    • Medical treatment
    • POW camps
    • Feed for horses
  • It was supposed to be “over by Christmas.”
  • It became a war of attrition (for both people and materials).
busted up empires new nation states
Busted up Empires  New nation-states
  • The Central Powers and Russia
    • Poland, Hungary, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, etc.
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, Palestine
  • Expansion of British and French territories in the Middle East

“The Sick Old Man of Europe”

reorganization of governments
Reorganization of Governments

Colonial Resistance!

Communism! Fascism!

  • India
  • China
  • Korea
  • Egypt
  • Paved the way for later independence movements
  • Russian Revolution in March/February of 1917
  • Right-wing movements in reaction to post-war issues:
    • Unemployment
    • Hyperinflation
    • Repparations
in the beginning blame it on the balkans
In the Beginning: Blame it on the Balkans
  • Serbia wanted more land for ethnic Serbs in the Balkans
  • Fought several small wars over this
  • Gained ground and started making Vienna nervous
franz ferdinand gets taken out
Franz Ferdinand Gets Taken Out

The Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

  • Visits Bosnia on Habsburg business
  • Assassinated with his wife by Serbian nationalists (aka “The Black Hand”)
secret deals and public demands
Secret Deals and Public Demands

Secret Deals

Public Demands

  • German support promised for Austria
  • Harvests begin in earnest in Central Europe
  • Will Russia support Serbia?
  • Allow Austrian investigation
  • Cease anti-Austrian propaganda

Demands rejected.

War declared.

it all happened so fast
It all happened so fast…
  • July 28 – Austria declares war on Serbia
  • July 30 – Russia mobilizes to support Serbia
  • August 1 – Germany declares war on Russia
  • A pause
    • Germany’s location
    • The entente
  • August 3 – Germany declares war on France
  • August 4 – Great Britain declares war on Germany
  • And just like that… we’ve got a war on our hands.
more than just the black hand
More than just the Black Hand
  • Industrialization  social changes
    • Urban migration
    • Demand for workers’ rights
  • Spread of democracy
    • Increased enfranchisement
    • Constitutional monarchy
      • Austria, Germany, Russia, Turkey
  • Realpolitik (realist foreign policy)
    • Many alliances made to stabilize power
    • Worked well from 1815 – 1914
developing international press
Developing International Press
  • “Yellow journalism”
    • Little or no legitimate, well-researched news
    • Instead, sensationalism / nationalism to sell papers
  • Pushed rulers to extend their empires and be aggressive in their foreign policies

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Tsar Nicholas II

germany late to the party
Germany: Late to the Party
  • Available land for overseas colonies snapped up quickly
  • Powerful economy + vocal nationalists = conflict
  • Expansion overland, not overseas
so territorial
So Territorial
  • Britain wanted to maintain its colonial dominance in Africa and Asia.
    • Feared German military’s growth and expansion
  • Russia wanted land in every direction
    • Central Asia
    • Southeast Europe
    • Ottoman territory
    • Also feared German expansion
  • Ottoman Empire
    • Slipping due to lack of industrialization
    • Antiquated military compared to other powers
    • Internal affairs meddled with by Russians, French, and British
the alliance system
The Alliance System

The Triple Alliance, 1882

Franco-Russian Alliance, 1892

  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Italy
  • Mutual fear of German expansion
  • An attempt to balance power and keep Germany from attacking either of them
  • Britain joined in 1907
the schlieffen plan fighting a war on two fronts
The Schlieffen Plan: Fighting a War on Two Fronts
  • Developed in 1904
    • Just as Russia was wrapping up Russo-Japanese War
  • Attack France in a massive offensive and attain quick surrender
  • Shift troops to the east to face Russia
  • Depended on quick defeat and turnaround
time s running out for schlieffen
Time’s Running Out for Schlieffen
  • France fortifying its border with Germany
  • Russia loaned money to build up its military and transportation infrastructure
  • Had to act by 1916

or it would be too late.

the threat of mobilization
The Threat of Mobilization
  • Timing was crucial.
  • Hesitation, disastrous.
  • Mobilization of troops almost equivalent to an act of war
  • When FF killed, fear of being left behind pushed everyone into war
a few more things
A Few More Things
  • Invitational Meet in Rockwall on Saturday, October 26
  • Rankings by next week
  • Prepare for the battle battle.
  • Who’s bringing breakfast?