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Physical Attack Protection with Human-Secure Virtualization in Data Centers. Jakub Szefer , Pramod Jamkhedkar, Yu-Yuan Chen and Ruby B. Lee Princeton University By, Akhilesh Raperthy. About Authors. Jakub Szefer : Current Research is Security and Performance of Cloud Computing.
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Jakub Szefer , Pramod Jamkhedkar, Yu-Yuan Chen and Ruby B. Lee
Jakub Szefer :
Current Research is Security and Performance of Cloud Computing.
Pramod Jamkhedkar :
Current Research is Software-hardware Architecture For Self-Protecting Data.
Yu-Yuan Chen :
Data-Centric Architectures for Confidentiality and Integrity
Ruby B. Lee:
Computer Architecture and multicore security for facilitating secure and resilient systems
Cloud computing-based data centers, which hold a large amount of customer data, are vulnerable to physical attacks and insider threats. Current protection and defense mechanisms for security of data held in data centers are either completely physical (sensors, barriers, etc.) or completely cyber (ﬁrewalls, encryption, etc.).
Utilities: cooling, power supply, backup power, etc.
Physical constraints:barriers, checkpoints, floor plan, etc.
Sensors: cameras, climate control
Management software: software framework for
management of the resources.
Servers: run and store customers' software and data; they provide the “utility” of the data center.
Networking: connection to the outside world and interconnection between servers.
– Support infrastructure (backup, electricity, etc.)
– Customer's access to their software or data
– Modification of software or data running in data center
– Software or data change in transit (e.g. over network)
– Customer's code or data leaking
VM’s used for computing environment with in an Operating system and Programs can be enabled.
VM’s can simultaneously run on multiple VM’s and can be easily moved b/w physical machine.
– Software attacks on servers
– Network attacks, denial-of-service
– Exploits in management software
– Physical intrusion
– Probing of hardware
– Equipment theft
– False assumption on security sensors
– Use existing infrastructures to track humans in data centers
– Use information to predict potential risks
– Adjust security measures to keep track with infrastructure changes
– Apply security measures suitable for given estimated defense time
Physical defenses can provide:
– Warning time
– Attack delay
Cyber defenses are activated when a threat is discovered
Estimated attack time guides choice of defense mechanisms
Software and data are conveniently contained inside virtual machine
– A virtual server has same properties as physical server
Virtualization software supports or can be modified to support:
– Moving virtual machine - migration
– On-demand encryption of code and data
– Deletion of code and data
Delete all the sensitive software and data
Lock down applications and data with encryption (and hashing) to protect confidentiality (and integrity)
Relocate software and data to avoid threats
Virtual machine migration can be used to move the software and data anywhere.
No one strategy is best
– Each offers different protections
– Each has different cost (time, compute power, network bandwidth)
An algorithm is needed to match the estimated time for defense and expected protections to the strategy
First, focus on APIs for management and compute infrastructures
Human-secure virtualization combines the three techniques of move, encrypt and delete to protect virtual machines from human attackers
Decision logic algorithm for managing defenses.
Data centers are interesting and important example of cyber-physical systems
Defined human-secure virtualization
Design of a system needed for physical attack protection in data centers:
– Focus on human attackers
– Leverage physical sensors for detection
– Leverage virtualization for cyber defenses