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Physical Protection

Physical Protection Division of Computer Studies Objectives Identify the natural disasters that threaten computer systems Determine the damage assessment and reconstruction techniques (for example how to recover from lost data)

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Physical Protection

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  1. Physical Protection Division of Computer Studies Y K Choi

  2. Objectives • Identify the natural disasters that threaten computer systems • Determine the damage assessment and reconstruction techniques (for example how to recover from lost data) • Design and select the physical location of a computer server, computer room etc. (where is the best location for computer room?) • Measure the air conditioning and power supply sources for computer center, servers and communication equipment (this will disrupt the service.) • Describe the various access control mechanisms to prevent unauthorised entries (use password, key/lock) Y K Choi

  3. Natural Disasters • By definition, a natural disaster is defined as any event that is an act of God or the result of natural causes that are not avoidable. • A computer server is more prone to earthquakes in Japan than in Hong Kong. • If a computer server is located at Kam Tin, it was more prone to flooding during rainy season. • Computer and communication equipment are sensitive to environmental and temperature conditions: that is too hot, humid, cold or inadequate power and software will affect the performance. Y K Choi

  4. Type of Natural Disasters in Hong Kong Radiation Falling Objects Storms Floods Fire Earthquake Y K Choi

  5. Earthquake? Or bomb explosive? • All equipment and human will be destroyed. • There is nothing you can do. • There is why you should not install ONLY one computer centre. (Might be one in Tokyo or the other in Hong Kong) Y K Choi

  6. Radiation – Nuclear Power Generation Plant • There is a threat that the nuclear power plant might generate leakage. So far, it has not happened in Hong Kong. Y K Choi

  7. Radiation Monitoring • Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) This is linked to Hong Kong Observatory. • This web site contains many information on radiation. Y K Choi

  8. Storms and Typhoon • This is the typhoon York in 1999. • From Hong Kong Observatory • In Telephone exchange centres, protection against power surge due to thunder storm is installed. Y K Choi

  9. Floods – computer becomes useless Y K Choi

  10. Floods • Floods are due to natural causes such as rainstorms, tides in Hong Kong. Say for example, you forget to close the window, while your servers are close to it. • In areas prone to flooding, you should locate your computer equipment well above the ground level. It might happen in China, but is unusual in Hong Kong. • Falling water: This is common in Hong Kong. If sprinkler systems are present in computer room, you should prepare plastic sheets so that you can cover all equipment in case there is a surge of water. You should change the sprinkler system to other types. Y K Choi

  11. Threats from Water • Flooding may be caused by rain or pipes overflowing • Please note that once a computer is wet, it cannot function. • If you were the manager, you should install water sensors below the raised floor. This sensor will alter the user. Y K Choi

  12. Fire • Fire is extremely dangerous as it damages not just the equipment but also the human. • Life is far important than equipment. Y K Choi

  13. Fire • Fire can be more serious than flooding as it affects human lives (not barbecue) • As the fire spread, there is no time to remove the computer equipment and data. • A well-planned disaster recovery plan and fire drills (rehearsal) should be practiced. • A windowless location with fire-resistant access doors and nonflammable walls can prevent fire spreading. Y K Choi

  14. Fire extinguisher http://www.fire-extinguisher101.com/ Fire extinguishers are divided into four categories, based on different types of fires. Each fire extinguisher also has a numerical rating that serves as a guide for the amount of fire the extinguisher can handle. The higher the number, the more fire-fighting power. For example, from Class A to D. Class A is for ordinary use (water), class B or C (carbon dioxide) while class D is for chemical plant. Class B is enough for computer room. Y K Choi

  15. Protecting against fire and Smoke • Use smoke detectors and check the function • Place a fire extinguishers near the computer room/communication equipment room • No smoking in computer areas • Use CFCs (or carbon dioxide) fire extinguishers rather than water-based (class B or C) Y K Choi

  16. Fire and Smoke Detectors • Smoke detector • Fire detector • detectors will sound loud, 85 decibel alarms to alert the user of smoke buildup. This could be due to a fire. The device is easily attached to walls or ceilings with batteries. Y K Choi

  17. Physical Facilities • In the early days, protection was simple as all equipment was kept in a single room with lock. • Today, with computers and servers becoming cheaper and smaller, protecting the environment is difficult. • Physical security involves tangible measures that are instituted to protect the facility, equipment and information from theft, misuse and disclosure etc. Y K Choi

  18. Computer Room • A typical computer room with smoke detector, water sprinkler and raised floor air conditioner Y K Choi

  19. Physical Layout of a computer room:http://www.cyberzone.net/operatio.htm Computer room before Computer room after Computer room during Computer room in operation Y K Choi

  20. Selecting the Physical Location The physical requirements for security can be met taking the following into account: (from Karen Forcht) • Place the computers and servers from main building traffic areas such as far from corridors • Avoid a location with outside walls and windows • Impose secure door locks • Install separate power sources and air conditioning systems (essential power in computer lab.) • Install backup light – such as torch Y K Choi

  21. CityU’s Computing Services Centre Far from students Y K Choi

  22. Air Conditioning Equipment • It should be independent of the rest building. • It should be connected to the fire detection and extinguishing system. • Additional smoke exhaust should be installed for emergency use. • The alarm should allow sufficient time for a system halt (system halt means no service). Y K Choi

  23. Access Controls • It includes key-locks, card-key locks, etc • Digital Keypad Locks digital access control locks for any door retrofit any standard knob or lever programmable from the keypad • Fingerprint (identify a finger) or photo identification • The controls include mirrors to eliminate blind spots in these areas (check with CSC, you will find that it has CCTV and mirror) Y K Choi

  24. Access Controls Digital lock, use password to open the door Computer lock to safeguard the equipment Access card Finger print Y K Choi

  25. Physical checklists – example of Division of Computer Studies • Security guard • Closed circuit TV • Fire extinguisher • Access gate • Access key lock • Sprinkler system • Central air-conditioner • Essential power (the highest priority to provide power) • Computer lock Y K Choi

  26. Physical checklists – example of Computer Services Centre (CSC) (1) • Identification mechanisms - password • Entrance control – with Cityu’s card • Guard control – with a security guard • Television surveillance – closed circuit TV • Environmental alarms – alarm in the corridor • Fire suppression system – fire extinguisher • Fire communication – security office 8888 • Emergency evacuation – fire exits • Remote site backup – NO Y K Choi

  27. Physical checklists – example of CSC (2) • Disaster recovery plan – Yes • Locate computer facilities in low traffic areas – in TSC room • Install power sources independent of other areas – essential power supply and uninterruptible power supply • Make ceilings and walls watertight – check by yourself • Prohibit smoking, easting and drinking in computer room – Yes • Place breathing apparatus units around facility – NO, but there is a safety box Y K Choi

  28. Web site on safety and health • There is a web site developed by CityU students to learn the knowledge on safety/security on computer server. http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~dcsafety Y K Choi

  29. Summary • The protection of the computer and server room is the first step in securing the operation. • Natural disaster such as flood, fire, earthquakes present a real threat • Backup copies should be kept in a safe place • Computer room should have separate air conditioning, power and electrical supply with fire detection • To prevent unauthorised persons, access controls such as locks, password should be installed. • Web site: http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~dcsafety Y K Choi

  30. Next Week • Web Security • Contents • Definition of Web security • Browser <- >Internet <-> Server • Risks that affect the above three Y K Choi

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