Adjectives (1st/2nd Declension) Chapter 5
Adjectives • All adjectives agree with the noun they modify in case, number, and gender. • All adjectives agree with the noun they modify in case, number, and gender. • All adjectives agree with the noun they modify in CASE, NUMBER, AND GENDER!!! • ALL ADJECTIVES AGREE WITH THE NOUN THEY MODIFY IN CASE, NUMBER, AND GENDER!!!!!!!!!!
Adjectives • Because all adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in _____, _____, and _____, they can be declined in both first and second declension. • So we call these adjectives “1st/2nd Adjectives.”
Special Notes • Just like 2nd Declension Masculine nouns, certain –er adjectives can contract. • You have to look at the 2nd principle part to know if it contracts or not. • miser, misera, miserum = doesn’t contract • pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum = contracts • If an adjective modifies multiple nouns in different genders, it will be masculine for people, and neuter for things.
Finding the Stem • To find the stem of an adjective: • Step 1: Look at the 2nd Principle Part • Step 2: Take off the –a. • (Nominative, Singular, Feminine ending)
Use 1: Attributive • An attributive adjective gives additional information about the noun it modifies. • Examples: • Agricola miserambulat in magnamvīllam. • The unhappy farmer walks into the large farmhouse. • Pulchrarēgīnaamatamīcumagricolam. • The beautiful queen loves the friendly farmer.
Use 2: Predicate Adjective • A predicate adjective is used with the verb “to be” makes a statement about the noun it modifies. • Functions just like a predicate nominative noun. • Examples: • Agricola miser est, sedvīllaestmagna. • The farmer is unhappy, but the farmhouse is large. • Puellaestpulchra. • The girl is beautiful.
Use 3: Substantive • A substantiveadjective has no noun to modify, but is used as a noun itself. • It is translated according to its gender and number: