german grammar lectures l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
German Grammar Lectures PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
German Grammar Lectures

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

German Grammar Lectures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 304 Views
  • Uploaded on

German Grammar Lectures. Lecture 1: The Gender of German Nouns Designed by Paul Joyce University of Portsmouth E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk. 1.1 German noun declension. There is no noun declension as such in German. Exceptions:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'German Grammar Lectures' - kieu


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
german grammar lectures
German Grammar Lectures

Lecture 1:

The Gender of German Nouns

Designed by Paul Joyce

University of Portsmouth

E-Mail: Paul.Joyce@port.ac.uk

1 1 german noun declension
1.1 German noun declension
  • There is no noun declension as such in German. Exceptions:
  • -(e)s endings on masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive case
  • -(e)n endings on nouns in the dative plural
  • Endings on weak masculine nouns
1 2 german articles
1.2 German Articles
  • Instead German cases are shown by means of the articles i.e. words such as “a”or “the” which are invariable in English.
  • The German definite article is called “der” and equates to English “the”.
  • The German indefinite article is called “ein” and equates to English “a”.
1 5 know your genders
1.5 Know your genders!
  • For this reason you must learn German nouns together with their gender as shown by the relevant definite article!
  • As the previous tables indicate, German nouns have one of three genders: masculine, feminine or neuter.
  • There are no gender differences in the plural in German.
1 6 quick quiz 1
1.6 Quick Quiz (1)
  • Because things are always referred to as “it” in English, English students of German tend to guess the gender of an unfamiliar word as neuter - “das”.
  • But are they right to do so?
  • Which of the three genders actually occurs most often in German?
1 7 quiz answer
1.7 Quiz Answer
  • Approximately 45% of German nouns are masculine.
  • 35% of German nouns are feminine.
  • Only 20% of German nouns are neuter!
1 8 typisch deutsch
1.8 Typisch deutsch!
  • Whereas in English gender virtually always corresponds logically to the sex of the noun, this is not the case in German.
  • Most German nouns denoting male peopleand animals are in fact masculine, and those denoting females are mostly feminine.
  • BUT there are exceptions - das Mädchen, das Fräulein, das Weib!
1 9 typisch deutsch 2
1.9 Typisch deutsch (2)!
  • And unlike English nouns, names of inanimate objects may be masculine, feminine or neuter in German.
  • This state of affairs prompted the 19th Century American writer Mark Twain to make the following comment about the German language:
1 10 mark twain on german genders
1.10 Mark Twain on German genders
  • “In German, a young lady has no sex, while a turnip has.”
  • “Think what over-wrought reverence that shows for the turnip, and what callous disrespect for the girl.” (Mark Twain, 1880)
1 11 basic rules of german gender
1.11 Basic rules of German gender
  • Whilst you should always learn the gender of any new noun that you encounter, you should also remember that:
  • Certain nouns have a particular gender because of their meaning.
  • Other nouns have a particular gender because of their form.
1 13 quiz 2 masculine
1.13 Quiz (2) - Masculine
  • der Arzt; der Löwe - male person / animal
  • der Süden - point of the compass
  • der Herbst - season of the year
  • der Mittwoch - day of the week
  • der Januar - month of the year
  • der Kaffee - plant-based drink
1 14 quiz 2 others
1.14 Quiz (2) - Others
  • die Ärztin - female person
  • die Löwin - female animal
  • das Baby - young person
  • das Pony - young animal
  • das Ypsilon - letter of the alphabet (and musical notes)
1 16 quiz 3 masculine
1.16 Quiz (3) - Masculine
  • der Euro - currency (BUT: das Pfund!)
  • der Balkan - mountain (range)
  • der Hagel - weather phenomena
  • der Abend - part of day (BUT: die Nacht)
  • der Wein - alcoholic drink (BUT: das Bier!)
  • der Mercedes - make of car
  • der Amazonas - non-German river
1 17 quiz 3 feminine
1.17 Quiz (3) - Feminine
  • die Elbe - German river (many exceptions: der Rhein; der Main; der Inn; der Lech)
  • die Vier - name of numeral
  • die Boeing - aeroplane (BUT: der Airbus)
  • (dieHonda - name of motorbike)
  • (die “Bismarck” - name of ship)
1 18 quiz 3 neuter
1.18 Quiz (3) - Neuter
  • Köln, Spanien, Europa- city, country, continent
  • das Atom - physical unit (i.e. das Pfund)
  • das Gold - metals, chemical elements (BUT: die Bronze; der Stahl, Schwefel)
  • Deutsch - languages (like most non-nouns used as nouns - das Ach, das Du, Doping)
1 19 exceptions gender by meaning
1.19 Exceptions: gender by meaning
  • There are many exceptions to these rules. Just think of countries!
  • masculine - der Irak, der Iran, der Libanon, der Sudan, der Jemen, der Kongo
  • feminine - die Schweiz; die Türkei, die Tschechische Republik, die Antarktis
  • plural - die USA; die Niederlande
1 21 quiz 4 masculine nouns
1.21 Quiz (4) – Masculine nouns
  • -ant - der Konsonant; der Diamant
  • -ich - der Teppich; der Wüterich
  • -ismus - der Marxismus, der Realismus
  • -(m)us - der Rhythmus; der Kasus
  • -or - der Motor (BUT: das Labor)
  • -pf, -ps - der Kopf; der Schlips
  • -tz - der Blitz; der Sitz
1 22 quiz 4 feminine endings
1.22 Quiz (4) – Feminine endings
  • -a - die Villa; die Aura (BUT NOT-ma)
  • -ei - die Datei; die Bücherei
  • -heit - die Einheit; die Gesundheit
  • -ik - die Panik (BUT: der Atlantik, Pazifik)
  • -schaft - die Botschaft, die Gesellschaft
  • -sion - die Illusion; die Explosion
  • -tät - die Qualität; die Universität
1 23 quiz 4 neuter endings
1.23 Quiz (4) – Neuter endings
  • -chen - das Bisschen, das Mädchen
  • -ell (stressed) - das Duell; das Rondell
  • -ett (stressed) - das Kabinett; das Ballett
  • -it - das Dynamit(BUT: der Profit, Granit)
  • -ma - das Schema (BUT: die Firma)
  • -tel - das Viertel, das Drittel
  • -um - das Album (BUT: der Konsum)
1 25 quiz 5 masculine nouns
1.25 Quiz (5) – Masculine nouns
  • -ast - der Kontrast
  • -ig - der Honig; der Pfennig
  • -ling - der Liebling
  • Note also that most nouns formed from a strong verb without a suffix are masculine: der Fall, der Biss, der Gang, der Schluss
  • (BUT: das Band, Schloss, Verbot…)
1 26 quiz 5 feminine nouns
1.26 Quiz (5) – Feminine nouns
  • -anz,-enz - die Eleganz, die Existenz
  • -ie - die Biologie; die Hysterie
  • -in - die Freundin (= female being)
  • -keit - die Heiterkeit
  • -tion - die Revolution; die Station
  • -ur - die Natur (BUT: das Abitur, Futur)
  • -ung - die Meinung
  • -sis - die Basis
1 27 quiz 5 neuter nouns
1.27 Quiz (5) – Neuter nouns
  • -il - das Ventil
  • -in - das Benzin, Protein (= chemical terms)
  • -lein - das Büchlein; das Fräulein
  • -ment - das Element (BUT: der Zement)
  • -tel - das Viertel, das Drittel
  • -tum - das Eigentum (BUT: der Irrtum, der Reichtum)
1 28 tendencies nis endings
1.28 Tendencies: “-nis” endings
  • We can only speak of tendencies with the following types of endings:
  • -nis - 70% neuter endings: das Ereignis, das Erlebnis, das Bedürfnis, das Ärgernis, das Geständnis, das Geheimnis, das Zeugnis
  • -nis - 30% feminine endings: die Erlaubnis, die Erkenntnis, die Kenntnis, die Finsternis, die Besorgnis, die Wildnis
1 29 tendencies er endings
1.29 Tendencies: “-er” endings
  • Nouns in -er denoting male persons are masculine: der Leiter (leader); der Bäcker
  • Many other -er nouns are also masculine - especially instruments or tools: der Computer, der Wecker, der Stecker
  • BUTmany common -er nouns are feminine: die Butter, die Mauer, die Ader, die Feder, die Nummer, die Mutter, die Schwester
1 30 tendencies er endings 2
1.30 Tendencies: “-er” endings (2)
  • And some 15% of -er nouns are neuter: das Fenster; das Fieber; das Wasser; das Alter
  • Careful! Some -er nouns have two meanings depending on their gender:
  • der Leiter (= leader); die Leiter (= ladder)
  • der Laster (= lorry); das Laster (= vice)
  • die Steuer (tax); das Steuer (steering wheel)
1 31 tendencies el endings
1.31 Tendencies: “-el” endings
  • The majority of -el nouns are masculine: der Onkel; der Enkel; der Flügel
  • About 25% of them however are feminine: die Wurzel; die Regel; die Insel; die Schüssel; die Kartoffel; die Gabel; die Nadel
  • The rest of them are neuter: das Segel; das Mittel; das Bündel; das Mädel
1 32 tendencies en endings
1.32 Tendencies: “-en” endings
  • About 60% of -en nouns are masculine: der Schatten; der Regen; der Magen
  • None of them are feminine!
  • Verbal infinitives ending in -en are neuter - das Kommen, das Essen, das Streben)
  • Other -en nouns are also neuter: das Leben; das Zeichen; das Becken
1 33 tendencies e endings
1.33 Tendencies: “-e” endings
  • About 90% of -e nouns are feminine: die Kirche; die Dame; die Straße etc.
  • There are a number of exceptions:

1) Two masculines - der Käse, der Charme

2) Weak masculine nouns

3) Neuter nouns beginning with “Ge-”

4) Other neuters: das Auge, das Ende, das Interesse, das Image

1 34 tendencies al endings
1.34 Tendencies: “-al” endings
  • Nouns ending in a stressed -al tend to be neuter: das Ritual; das Lineal; das Journal, das Tribunal, das Arsenal etc.
  • There are a number of exceptions:
  • Masculine -der Kanal, der General, der Skandal
  • Feminine - die Moral
1 35 tendencies i cht endings
1.35 Tendencies: “-(i)cht” endings
  • Nouns ending in -cht tend to be feminine: die Nacht; die Macht; die Sicht, die Pflicht
  • Exceptions: das Recht; das Licht
  • BUT polysyllabic nouns ending in -icht tend to beneuter -das Dickicht, Röhricht
  • Exceptions - der Bericht; die Nachricht
1 36 tendencies ge nouns
1.36 Tendencies: “Ge-” nouns
  • 90% of nouns starting with “Ge-” are neuter: das Gebäude; dasGesetz; dasGerät; das Gesicht, das Gespräch etc.
  • Exceptions include 11 masculine nouns:
  • They are: der Gebrauch, der Gedanke, der Gefallen, der Gehalt, der Gehorsam, der Genuss, derGeruch, der Gesang, der Geschmack, der Gestank, der Gewinn
1 37 tendencies ge nouns 2
1.37 Tendencies: Ge- nouns (2)
  • Weak masculine nouns: derGenosse / die Genossin; der Geselle / die Gesellin
  • 11 feminine Ge- nouns:die Gebärde, die Gebühr, die Geburt, die Geduld, die Gefahr, die Gemeinde, dieGeschichte, die Geschwulst, die Gestalt, die Gewähr, die Gewalt
  • der Gefallen (favour); das Gefallen (pleasure)
  • der Gehalt (content); das Gehalt (salary)
1 38 tendencies imported nouns
1.38 Tendencies: Imported nouns
  • The tendency to say that imported nouns are automatically neuter should be resisted!
  • This is true for some endings - i.e. -o / -eau:das Auto, das Büro, das Kino, das Konto
  • Other imported noun endings are neuter if they refer to things (-är:das Militär, Salär; -ent:das Talent) but masculine when they refer to people: der Aktionär; der Student
1 39 gender of imported nouns 2
1.39 Gender of imported nouns (2)
  • Other imported endings are feminine:
  • -ade:die Marmelade, die Ballade
  • -age:die Garage, die Etage, die Courage
  • -elle: die Frikadelle, die Bagatelle
  • -ette:die Etikette, die Toilette
  • -itis:die Bronchitis, die Arthritis
  • -ose: die Neurose, die Tuberkulose
  • -üre: die Broschüre
1 40 recent imported nouns
1.40 Recent imported nouns
  • Large scale borrowing of words from English is a characteristic feature of modern German.
  • Many English words adopt the gender of the nearest German equivalent:
  • der Airport(= der Flughafen)
  • das Bike (= das Fahrrad)
  • der Shop (= der Laden)
1 41 recent imported nouns 2
1.41 Recent imported nouns (2)
  • BUT it is the ending of some English words that determines the gender in German:
  • die City, die Party, die Publicity (because -ie is a feminine ending)
  • der Computer, der Dimmer, der Container (as -er for instruments is masculine)
  • Monosyllabic nouns from verbs are often masculine: der Hit, der Look, der Talk
1 42 gender of compound nouns
1.42 Gender of compound nouns
  • Compound nouns usually have the gender of their final component:
  • der Plan hence der Fahrplan
  • das Bad hence das Hallenbad
  • Exceptions: das Wort BUT die Antwort
  • der Mut BUT die Armut, die Schwermut
  • die Scheu BUT der Abscheu
1 43 gender of abbreviations
1.43 Gender of abbreviations
  • The gender of abbreviations is determined by the basic word:
  • die CDU: die Christlich-Demokratische Union
  • der HSV: der Hamburger Sportverein
  • Shortened words have the gender of the full form: die Uni (die Universität); der Krimi (der Kriminalroman); der Akku (der Akkumulator)
  • BUTdasFoto despite die Fotografie
1 44 quiz conclusion
1.44 Quiz: Conclusion
  • See how important it is to know gender rules and exceptions! Using the articles below state how many items there are and their case:

Question 1: dieLehrer; der Lehrerin

Question 2: der Mauer; der Maurer

Question 3: die Katze; die Schätze

Question 4: dieMädchen; denMännchen

1 45 quiz answers
1.45 Quiz: Answers
  • dieLehrer (masc. plural - nom. / acc.); der Lehrerin (fem. singular - genitive / dative)
  • der Mauer (fem. singular - genitive / dative; der Maurer (masc. plural. - genitive)
  • die Katze (fem. singular - nom. / acc.); die Schätze (masc. plural - nom. / acc.)
  • dieMädchen (neuter plural - nom. / acc.); denMännchen (neuter plural - dative)