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PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security. Lecture 7 – The Functions of Homeland Security. Strategic Objectives of Homeland Security. Prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; Reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism; and

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ppa 573 emergency management and homeland security

PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security

Lecture 7 – The Functions of Homeland Security

strategic objectives of homeland security
Strategic Objectives of Homeland Security
  • Prevent terrorist attacks within the United States;
  • Reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism; and
  • Minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.
critical mission areas
Critical Mission Areas
  • Preventing terrorist attacks.
    • Intelligence and warning.
    • Border and transportation security.
    • Domestic counterterrorism.
  • Reducing America’s vulnerability.
    • Protecting critical infrastructure.
    • Defending against catastrophic terrorism.
  • Minimizing the damage and recovering from attacks.
    • Emergency preparedness and response.
intelligence and warning
Intelligence and Warning
  • Terrorism depends on surprise.
  • The United States should take every necessary action to avoid being surprised by another terrorist attack.
intelligence and warning5
Intelligence and Warning
  • Five major initiatives of National Strategy.
    • Enhance the analytic capabilities of the FBI.
    • Build new capabilities through the Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate of the DHS.
    • Implement Homeland Security Advisory System.
    • Utilize dual-use analysis to prevent attacks.
    • Employ red-team techniques.
categories of intelligence and information analysis
Categories of Intelligence and Information Analysis
  • Tactical threat analysis.
    • The timely and thorough analysis and dissemination of information about terrorists and their current and potential activities.
    • Allows immediate and near-term action and provides useful warning.
categories of intelligence and information analysis8
Categories of Intelligence and Information Analysis
  • Strategic analysis of the enemy.
    • A deep understanding of the organizations that may conduct terrorist attacks against the United States.
    • Knowing the identities, financial and political sources of support, motivation, goals, current and future capabilities, and vulnerabilities of these organizations will assist us in preventing and preempting future attacks, and in taking long-term actions that can weaken support for organizations that seek to damage U.S. interests.
categories of intelligence and information analysis9
Categories of Intelligence and Information Analysis
  • Vulnerability assessments.
    • Allow planners to project the consequences of possible terrorist attacks against specific facilities or different sectors of the economy or government.
    • Supported by computer modeling and analysis.
categories of intelligence and information analysis10
Categories of Intelligence and Information Analysis
  • Threat-vulnerability integration.
    • Mapping terrorist threats and capabilities – both current and future – against specific facility and sectoral vulnerabilities will allow authorities to determine which organizations pose the greatest threats and which facilities and sectors are most at risk.
    • Will allow planners to develop thresholds for preemptive or protective action.
categories of intelligence action
Categories of Intelligence Action
  • Tactical preventive action.
    • Analysis can, and must, be turned into action that prevents terrorists from carrying out their plots.
    • The U.S. has numerous tools for disruption and detention.
    • Tools can be deployed as soon as a credible threat is identified.
categories of intelligence action12
Categories of Intelligence Action
  • Warning and protective action.
    • Inclusive and comprehensive analysis allows the government to take protective action.
    • Defensive action will reduce the potential effectiveness of an attack by prompting relevant sectors to implement security and incident management plans.
    • Defensive action works as a deterrent to terrorists weighing the potential effectiveness of their plans.
    • Warnings allow entities and citizens to take appropriate actions to meet the threat.
categories of intelligence action13
Categories of Intelligence Action
  • Strategic response (policy).
    • The strategies and operating procedures used to fight the traditional strategic threats of the 20th century are of little use in the war on terrorism.
major intelligence initiatives
Major Intelligence Initiatives
  • Enhance the analytic capabilities of the FBI.
    • Increase the staff working to analyze intelligence.
    • Hire specialized expertise in language, computer skills, science and engineering.
    • Obtain 25 analysts from the CIA.
major intelligence initiatives15
Major Intelligence Initiatives
  • Building new capabilities through the Information Analysis and Infrastructure Directorate in DHS.
    • Perform comprehensive vulnerability assessments.
    • Perform threat-vulnerability integration.
    • Access all relevant intelligence information.
major intelligence initiatives16
Major Intelligence Initiatives
  • Implement homeland security advisory system.
    • Disseminates information on risk of terrorist threats to federal, state, local authorities, private sector, and American people.
    • The advisory system characterizes appropriate levels of vigilance, preparedness, and readiness in a series of graduate threat conditions. Each threat condition has corresponding suggested measures to be taken in response.
    • Such responses include increased surveillance of critical locations, preparing to execute contingency procedures, and closing public and government facilities.
major intelligence initiatives17
Major Intelligence Initiatives
  • Utilize dual-use analysis to prevent attacks.
    • Terrorist use equipment and materials to carry out their criminal acts that have both terrorist and commercial applications.
    • The identification of dual-use acquisitions, cross-referenced with intelligence and law enforcement databases, and mapped against threat analyses can enhance government detection of terrorist activities.
major intelligence initiatives18
Major Intelligence Initiatives
  • Employ “red team” techniques.
    • Hire employees to view the United States from the terrorist perspective seeking to identify vulnerabilities and terrorist methods, means, and targets.
border and transportation security
Border and Transportation Security
  • The U.S. has a 5,525 mile border with Canada and a 1,989 mile border the Mexico. The maritime border has 95,000 miles of shoreline and navigable waterways as well as 3.4 million square mile exclusive economic zone.
  • All people and goods legally entering the country must come by air, land, or sea port of entry.
border and transportation security20
Border and Transportation Security
  • 500 million legal visitors; 330 million non-citizens; 85 percent by land.
  • $1.35 trillion in imports, $1 trillion in exports in 2001.
  • America has traditionally relied on two oceans and two friendly neighbors for border security.
  • Modern forms of transportation and destructive potential of terrorism has forced rethinking.
major initiatives
Major Initiatives
  • Ensure accountability in border and transportation security.
    • Consolidate INS, Customs Service, Coast Guard, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and Transportation Security Administration in DHS.
major initiatives22
Major Initiatives
  • Create “smart borders.”
    • Layered management system.
    • Balance the management of risk and the expedient flow of goods, services, and people.
major initiatives23
Major Initiatives
  • Create “smart borders” (contd.).
    • Screen passengers and goods before they reach the borders.
      • Databases.
      • Biometric indicators.
      • International and private security.
      • Quality of travel documents and issuance.
      • Assistance to improve other countries’ border security.
      • Work with Canada and Mexico to improve security while facilitating NAFTA.
    • Improve immigration services while maintaining watch lists.
major initiatives24
Major Initiatives
  • Increase the security of international shipping containers.
    • Identify high-risk containers.
    • Pre-screen containers before they enter U.S. ports.
    • Use technology to screen high-risk containers.
    • Develop and use smart and secure containers.
    • Place inspectors in 20 mega-ports that account for 68 percent of shipping.
major initiatives25
Major Initiatives
  • Implement the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001.
    • Strengthened partnerships with federal, state, local officials and the private sector to reduce vulnerability.
    • Protection of critical transportation assets such as ports, pipelines, rail, and highway bridges and over 10,000 FAA facilities.
major initiatives26
Major Initiatives
  • Implement the Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 (contd.).
    • Secure national airspaces (TSA).
    • Private sector (commercial aviation and other mass transportation, hazardous materials, intermodal transportation, national airspace, shipping container security, traffic-management systems, critical infrastructure, surety of transportation operators and workers, linkages with international transportation systems, information sharing.)
major initiatives27
Major Initiatives
  • Recapitalize the Coast Guard.
    • Rebuilding aging fleet to facilitate homeland security mission.
    • Maintain responsibility for national defense, maritime safety, maritime mobility, and protection of natural resources.
major initiatives28
Major Initiatives
  • Reform immigration services.
    • Separate enforcement and service functions.
    • Implement Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act, including travel documents with biometric information.
domestic counterterrorism
Domestic Counterterrorism
  • Effects of September 11:
    • While law enforcement agencies will continue to investigate and prosecute criminal activity, they now also must assign priority to preventing and interdicting terrorist activity within the U.S.
  • Increased information sharing and coordination of operations throughout the law enforcement community.
domestic counterterrorism30
Domestic Counterterrorism
  • Major shortcomings remain:
    • Inability to identify key sources of funding.
    • Unsatisfactory system for analyzing information to prevent attacks.
    • Utilize state and local law enforcement by allowing information access.
major initiatives31
Major Initiatives
  • Improve intergovernmental law enforcement coordination.
    • An effective domestic counterterrorism effort requires the participation of law enforcement personnel at all levels of government, as well as the coordination of all relevant agencies and officials.
    • Expansion of Joint Terrorism Task Forces operating to all 56 field offices.
major initiatives32
Major Initiatives
  • Facilitate apprehension of potential terrorists.
    • Improve access to information on potential terrorists.
      • NCIC database.
      • Transfer Department of State TIPOFF info into NCIC.
    • Consolidated terrorism watch list.
    • Obtain biometric information.
    • Modify laws and regulations to allow FBI to conduct essential counterterrorism activities in U.S. through datamining of commercial databases.
major initiatives33
Major Initiatives
  • Continue ongoing investigations and prosecutions.
    • “Penttbom” (September 11) investigations.
    • Other terrorist activities.
    • Attorney General (FBI) will lead investigations.
major initiatives34
Major Initiatives
  • Complete FBI restructuring to emphasize prevention of terrorist attacks.
    • New positions for information sharing.
    • Commission of significant resources to terrorism prevention.
    • Building within FBI a concentrated, national, centralized, and deployable expertise on terrorism issues (improved communication).
      • Flying squads.
      • Legal attaches.
      • National Joint Terrorism Task Force.
major initiatives35
Major Initiatives
  • Target and attack terrorist financing.
    • FBI’s Financial Review Group and Customs’ Operation Green Quest.
  • Track foreign terrorists and bring them to justice.
    • Barring terrorists or terrorist-supporting aliens from the U.S.
    • Tracking down and deporting any who have illegally entered the country.
protecting critical infrastructures and key assets
Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets
  • Terrorists are opportunistic. They exploit vulnerabilities we leave exposed, choosing the time, place, and method of attack according to the weaknesses they observe.
    • Increasing security of a particular type of target will cause them to shift targets.
    • Increasing countermeasures for a particular tactic will cause them to shift tactics.
protecting critical infrastructures and key assets37
Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets
  • Critical problem is our open, technologically complex society that presents an almost infinite variety of targets.
  • We cannot protect all targets, all of the time.
  • We can deter or deflect attacks or mitigate their effects by making strategic improvements in protection and security.
protecting critical infrastructures and key assets38
Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets
  • What must we protect?
    • Critical infrastructure are those “systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.”
protecting critical infrastructures and key assets40
Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets
  • Key Assets.
    • Individual targets whose destruction would not endanger vital systems, but could create local disaster or profoundly damage our Nation’s morale or confidence.
    • Symbols or historical attractions.
    • Individual or localized facilities that deserve special protection because of destructive potential or value to local community.
    • Certain high-profile events.
major initiatives41
Major Initiatives
  • Unify America’s infrastructure protection effort in the DHS.
    • Consolidation of federal effort (CIAO, NIPC, FCIRC, CSD of NIST, NCS).
    • Unify responsibility for coordinating cyber and physical infrastructure protection efforts.
major initiatives43
Major Initiatives
  • Build and maintain a complete and accurate assessment of America’s critical infrastructure and assets.
  • Enable effective partnership with state and local governments and the private sector.
  • Develop a national infrastructure protection plan.
    • National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets
      • http://www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/images/physical_strategy-120.jpg.
major initiatives44
Major Initiatives
  • Secure cyberspace.
    • The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.
      • http://www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/images/cyberspace_strategy-120.jpg.
  • Harness the best analytic and modeling tools to develop effective protective solutions.
  • Guard America’s critical infrastructure and key assets against “inside” threats.
  • Partner with the international community to protect our transnational infrastructure.
defending against catastrophic threats
Defending Against Catastrophic Threats
  • The expertise to build weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, high explosive) is proliferating.
  • The current structure of coordination of federal, state, local, private, nonprofit works for natural disasters.
  • Terrorism will require new approaches, a focused strategy, and a new organization.
major initiatives46
Major Initiatives
  • Prevent terrorist use of nuclear weapons through better sensors and procedures.
  • Detect chemical and biological materials and attacks.
  • Improve chemical sensors and decontamination techniques.
  • Develop broad spectrum vaccines, antimicrobials, and antidotes.
  • Harness the scientific knowledge and tools to counter terrorism.
  • Implement the Select Agent Program.
emergency preparedness and response
Emergency Preparedness and Response
  • Prepare to minimize the damage and recover from any future terrorist attacks that may occur despite efforts at prevention.
  • Comprehensive national system to bring together and command all necessary response assets quickly and effectively.
  • Equip, train, and exercise many different response units for any emergency without warning.
  • First line of defense is the first responder community.
  • FEMA provides funding and command and control support.
  • Reduce the number of plans at the federal level.
major initiatives48
Major Initiatives
  • Integrate separate federal response plans into a single all-discipline incident management plan.
  • Create a national incident management system.
  • Improve tactical counterterrorist capabilities.
  • Enable seamless communication among all responders.
major initiatives49
Major Initiatives
  • Prepare health care providers for catastrophic terrorism.
  • Augment America’s pharmaceutical and vaccine stockpiles.
  • Prepare for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination.
  • Plan for military support to civil authorities.
major initiatives50
Major Initiatives
  • Build the Citizen Corps.
  • Implement the First Responder Initiative.
  • Build a national training and evaluation program.
  • Enhance the victim support system.
foundations law
Foundations: Law
  • Use laws to win the war on terrorism while protecting civil liberties.
  • Do not preempt local or state efforts or overfederalize the legal effort.
major initiatives federal
Major Initiatives (Federal)
  • Enable critical infrastructure information sharing.
  • Streamline information sharing among intelligence and law enforcement agencies.
  • Expand existing extradition authorities.
  • Review authority for military assistance in domestic security.
major initiatives federal53
Major Initiatives (Federal)
  • Revive the President’s reorganization authority.
  • Provide substantial management flexibility for DHS.
major initiatives state
Major Initiatives (State)
  • Coordinate suggested minimum standards for state driver’s licenses.
  • Enhance market capacity for terrorism insurance.
  • Train for the prevention of cyber attacks.
  • Suppress money laundering.
  • Ensure the continuity of the judiciary.
  • Review quarantine authority.
foundation science and technology
Foundation: Science and Technology
  • National advantage in science and technology for analysis, information sharing, detection, countering CBRN.
  • Systematic national effort to harness science and technology for homeland security.
  • Private sector will play the key role.
major initiatives56
Major Initiatives
  • Develop CBRN countermeasures.
  • Develop systems for detecting hostile intent.
  • Apply biometric technology to identification devices.
  • Improve the technical capabilities of first responders.
major initiatives57
Major Initiatives
  • Coordinate research and development of the homeland security apparatus.
  • Establish a national laboratory for homeland security.
  • Solicit independent and private analysis for science and technology research.
  • Establish a mechanism for rapidly producing prototypes.
major initiatives58
Major Initiatives
  • Conduct demonstrations and pilot deployments.
  • Set standards for homeland security technology.
  • Establish a system for high-risk, high-payoff homeland security research.
foundation information sharing and systems
Foundation: Information Sharing and Systems
  • Information contributes to every aspect of homeland security and is a vital foundation for the homeland security effort.
  • Information for homeland security exists in multiple databases that cannot be shared vertically or horizontally.
  • Procurement has not pursed compatibility.
  • Communication not coordinated.
five principles
Five Principles
  • Balance homeland security requirements with privacy.
  • Homeland security community will view the three levels of government as one entity.
  • Information will be captured at the source and used many times to support multiple requirements.
  • Create databases of record, which will be trusted sources of information.
  • Homeland security information architecture will be a dynamic tool.
major initiatives61
Major Initiatives
  • Integrate information sharing across the federal government.
  • Integrate information sharing across state and local governments, private industry, and citizens.
  • Adopt common “meta-data” standards for electronic information relevant to homeland security.
major initiatives62
Major Initiatives
  • Improve public safety emergency communications.
  • Ensure reliable public health information.
foundation international cooperation
Foundation: International Cooperation
  • A successful strategy for homeland security requires international cooperation.
major initiatives64
Major Initiatives
  • Create “smart borders”.
  • Combat fraudulent travel documents.
  • Increase the security of international shipping containers.
  • Intensify international law enforcement cooperation.
  • Help foreign nations fight terrorism.
major initiatives65
Major Initiatives
  • Expand protection of transnational critical infrastructure.
  • Amplify international cooperation on homeland security science and technology.
  • Improve cooperation in response to attacks.
  • Review obligations to international treaties and law.