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Chapter Fifteen: In Search of Homeland Security. Defining Homeland Security. Defining Homeland Security. Issues surrounding homeland security

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defining homeland security3
Defining Homeland Security
  • Issues surrounding homeland security
    • Issues surrounding homeland security are confused because the country is dealing with a new concept, a new meaning of conflict, and a change in the procedures used to defend the United States
  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
    • DHS is responsible for protecting the borders and the country’s interior

Defining Homeland Security

  • Mission and understanding
    • Mission and understanding mean the same thing, but there are many different understandings of homeland security because many agencies have differing missions
  • Policy
    • The policy guiding homeland security in the United States has not been fully developed, and executives are not quite sure of the way that all the missions of various agencies fit together

Defining Homeland Security

  • Civil defense
    • Homeland security also involves civil defense, that is, citizens engaged in homeland security
    • A major portion of security is a civic responsibility

Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War

  • Democrats and Republicans
    • Republicans tend to see terrorism as a military issue
    • Democrats tend to see terrorism as a criminal act
clausewitz sun tzu and views of war8
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War
  • Before the time of growing terrorism
    • Before the time of growing terrorism, War was an extension of politics fought within the legal framework of the Constitution
    • The Constitution states that only Congress has the power to declare war, and Congress declares whether America is in a state of war or of peace
    • Terrorism is changing the nature of conflict
clausewitz sun tzu and views of war9
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War
  • Carl von Clausewitz
    • Prussian general and military philosopher, Carl von Clausewitz, came to believe that the French Revolution created a new type of war
    • The strength of the French came from their ability to place the nation in arms, that is, to rally the people to the belief that all citizens of a nation are potential soldiers or supporters of the military
    • Clausewitz’s On War is a philosophical treatise on the nature of total, nationalistic wars
clausewitz sun tzu and views of war10
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War
  • Victor Hanson’s criticism of Clausewitz
    • Hanson criticizes Clausewitz and the Western way of battle, claiming the West is consumed with the way war was fought in Ancient Greece. According to this line of thought, the purpose of military action is to seek a decisive engagement.
    • Terrorism is designed to produce the opposite effect, seeking to avoid direct confrontation with force
clausewitz sun tzu and views of war11
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War
  • Sun Tzu
    • Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu, produced a treatise on the paradoxes of war
    • Sun Tzu saw war and peace as two sides of the same coin
    • War and politics were psychological forces held together by the belief in power
clausewitz sun tzu and views of war12
Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, and Views of War
  • Asymmetry
    • Terrorism is based on Sun Tzu’s concept of strength-to-weakness
    • In modern military parlance this is called asymmetry- competing forces are out of balance
    • Terrorists tend to be true believers who sacrifice lives, and they are willing to attack while avoiding social conventions and societal norms
    • The purpose of terrorism is to give the impression that powerful economic, military, and political forces cannot protect ordinary people going about their daily routines
    • Military forces must cope with this change, but criminal justice agencies become involved in homeland security precisely because terrorists fight outside the rules
pearl harbor and 9 11 two different worlds14
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two Different Worlds
  • December 7, 1941
    • The purpose of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was to destroy U.S. military capabilities in the Pacific
pearl harbor and 9 11 two different worlds15
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two Different Worlds
  • September 11, 2001
    • The 9-11 attacks were designed for drama. They were a tragedy performed on a subnational level, with the purpose of murdering thousands of people to create an aura of fear
    • The goal of the September 11 terrorists was not one of conventional military strategy. Its purpose was to create so much feat that Western institutions would change their behavior
    • The terrorists of September 11 were attacking globalization while America was defending state power
pearl harbor and 9 11 two different worlds16
Pearl Harbor and 9-11: Two Different Worlds
  • The new style of conflict
    • Jihadists are not attacking state power; they are attacking the idea of Western, and particularly American culture
    • Modern terrorism is aimed at the infrastructure of everyday life and the symbols that define that structure
redefining conflict defense and intelligence18
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and Intelligence
  • Clausewitz’s factors on the changing nature of military action
    • Sometimes wars are fought on frontiers against irregular armies
    • War is an extension of politics. The only reason a nation fights is to win a political victory
redefining conflict defense and intelligence19
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and Intelligence
  • Preparing for the new type of war
    • The Pentagon prepared to fight state-to-state battles during the 1990s
    • Terrorists do not fight in field engagements; therefore, military forces must transform their structures to take the fight to terrorists
redefining conflict defense and intelligence20
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and Intelligence
  • Vice admiral Arthur Cebrowsky
    • Cebrowsky believes that America needs to create a new defense culture that permeates all levels of society and that breaks down barriers between organizations
    • The United States needs forces that thoroughly understand American culture and the cultures of our enemies and friends
redefining conflict defense and intelligence21
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and Intelligence
  • Martin van Crefeld
    • Crefeld argues that war has changed; violence is the purpose
    • Crefeld illustrates his thesis by using the French-Algerian War as an example. The Algerian nationalists of the National Liberation Front (FLN) fought for the community’s survival. As long as they fought, they were succeeding
redefining conflict defense and intelligence22
Redefining Conflict, Defense, and Intelligence
  • Barnett’s thesis
    • Barnett implies that military forces must change for future battles
    • A force fighting to impose political will operates differently from a force fighting for existence
    • The purpose of power is to create a new set of international rules in which all nations are included in economic development, prosperity, and peace
    • When nations are excluded, violent terrorists have no incentive to play within the rules
the role of symbols and structures24
The Role of Symbols and Structures
  • Symbolic targets
    • Asymmetrical war is waged against symbolic targets, and homeland security is designed to secure symbols
    • Attacks against symbols disrupt support structures and can have a high human toll
the role of symbols and structures25
The Role of Symbols and Structures
  • Grenville Byford
    • Byford points out that symbolic attack may simply be designed to inflict massive casualties; that is, killing people has a symbolic value
    • Rather than engaging in political rhetoric about morality, Byford concludes, it is more productive to understand that Americans represent symbolic targets of military value
the role of symbols and structures26
The Role of Symbols and Structures
  • Ian Lesser’s three forms of terrorism
    • Symbolic terrorism is a dramatic attack to show vulnerability
    • Pragmatic terrorism involves a practical attempt to destroy political power
    • Systematic terrorism is waged over a period of time to change social conditions
    • Terrorists use symbolic attacks or attacks on symbols to achieve pragmatic or systematic results
the role of symbols and structures27
The Role of Symbols and Structures
  • The key to security
    • Offer protection without destroying abstract meanings
    • Enhance protection while maintaining openness
    • The irony is that every added security measure increases the feeling of insecurity
law enforcement s special role29
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
  • Preemptive, offensive policing
    • If law enforcement simply responds, it will have little impact on the prevention of terrorism
law enforcement s special role30
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
  • Results if state and local agencies shift to offensive thinking and action
    • Police contact with potential terrorists will increase
      • This, however, increases the possibility of negative stereotyping and the abuse of power
    • Proactive measures demand increased intelligence gathering, and much of the information will have not relation to criminal activity
law enforcement s special role31
Law Enforcement’s Special Role
  • Offensive action in the private sector
    • Offensive action begins in the local community
    • The weakness in local systems occurs because state and local police departments do not frequently think beyond their jurisdictions, and they do not routinely take advantage of potential partnerships inside their bailiwicks
building intelligence systems33
Building Intelligence Systems
  • The most important aspect of security
    • Information that guides security forces
    • Information is crucial for day-to-day operations
building intelligence systems34
Building Intelligence Systems
  • Information gathering
    • While academic in nature, information gathering is directly applicable to gathering intelligence
    • Applied intelligence involves gathering basic information about a target and real-time information about current events
    • The practical application of this process comes through organizing structures aimed at collecting, analyzing, and forwarding information
building intelligence systems35
Building Intelligence Systems
  • President Jimmy Carter
    • Carter wanted to protect Americans from their government
    • The government began to limit the power of intelligence operations, unintentionally hampering their effectiveness
building intelligence systems36
Building Intelligence Systems
  • Time magazine article
    • The article stated: America needs to learn to spy again
    • National security intelligence is crucial, but law enforcement has a role
    • The authors of the article also censure bureaucratic structures for failing to share information, and they condemn the system for relying too heavily on machine and electronic information
    • Another weak point is the inability to analyze the information
building intelligence systems37
Building Intelligence Systems
  • New Jersey State Police (NJSP)
    • The NJSP Intelligence Service Section is made up of three divisions
    • The Intelligence Bureau is the largest division, composed of six units
      • The Analytical Unit
      • The Casino Intelligence Unit
      • The Electronic Surveillance Unit
      • The Liaison Computerized Services Unit
      • The Service Unit
      • The Street Gang Unit
building intelligence systems38
Building Intelligence Systems
  • The central security unit is responsible for New Jersey’s counterterrorist mission. It is a proactive organization designed to prevent terrorism through interdiction
  • The Solid Waste Unit keeps an eye on organized crime
  • Recently, NJSP linked its intelligence service with federal law enforcement, giving it the potential for greater effectiveness
building intelligence systems39
Building Intelligence Systems
  • California Anti-Terrorism Information Center (CATIC)
    • Formed after 9-11, the CATIC is a statewide intelligence system is designed to combat terrorism
    • The center links federal, state, and local information services in one system and divides operational zones into five administrative areas
    • CATIC combines public information with data on criminal trends and public terrorist activities
building intelligence systems40
Building Intelligence Systems
  • New York City Police Department (NYPD)
    • Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly created two new units
      • One for counterterrorism
      • One for intelligence
building intelligence systems41
Building Intelligence Systems
  • Critics of the FBI and CIA
    • The FBI and CIA have been criticized for failing to gather information before the September 11 attacks and ineffectively analyzing the information they did have
    • Civil liberties groups fear growing power in agencies associated with homeland security, while others express concern over expanding executive authority
planning for homeland security43
Planning for Homeland Security
  • Planning is essential
    • Planning enhances the gathering, organizing, and analyzing of information
planning for homeland security44
Planning for Homeland Security
  • The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)
    • The IACP believes planning can be guided by looking for threats inside local communities
    • Indicators such as an increase in violent rhetoric, the appearance of extremist groups, and increases in certain types of crimes may demonstrate that a terrorist problem is on the horizon
planning for homeland security45
Planning for Homeland Security
  • Richard Best
    • National security differs from law enforcement
    • In police work, officers react to information provided voluntarily
    • National security intelligence is used to anticipate threats
    • Law enforcement should plan and develop two channels for information
      • One should be aimed at law enforcement
      • State and local police agencies should be prepared to pass such information along to defense sources
creating a culture of information sharing47
Creating a Culture of Information Sharing
  • The National Strategy for Homeland Security calls for increased information sharing among law enforcement agencies
creating a culture of information sharing48
Creating a Culture of Information Sharing
  • Information sharing systems
    • The Regional Information Sharing System (RISS)
      • The RISS is a six-part information network whose policies are controlled by its members
    • The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTAs)
    • The El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC)
    • The International Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA)
    • Weaknesses in the U.S. system
creating a culture of information sharing49
Creating a Culture of Information Sharing
  • The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan
    • The purpose of the plan is not only to create a culture of sharing, but to generate the structures and communications systems to make it happen
    • All agencies will communicate in a single network
creating a culture of information sharing50
Creating a Culture of Information Sharing
  • 9-11 Commission Report recommendations
    • Recommendations focused on defense, intelligence, information sharing, homeland security, and law enforcement
    • The commission argued that the government was structured to fight the Cold War, not to counter terrorism
creating a culture of information sharing51
Creating a Culture of Information Sharing
  • Critics of the 9-11 Commission Report
    • The FBI’s record of combating terrorism was port, and there may be no reason to believe that restructuring will improve its capabilities