Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). Developed by Shepard (1962) and Kruskal (1964) for psychological data First applied in ecology by Anderson (1971)
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Residual sum ofsquares of monotone
Sum ofsquares of distances
Once stress starts to level out, most SUs don’t change much in their position
Stress = 0.0139