Engineers Without Borders. Water Supply and Distribution System University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang , Cameroon. Implementation June 2008. Project Location: Bakang , Cameroon Village of 3,000 in Highlands Chapter: University of Delaware Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008
Engineers Without Borders Water Supply and Distribution System University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang, Cameroon
Implementation June 2008 • Project Location: Bakang, Cameroon • Village of 3,000 in Highlands • Chapter: University of Delaware • Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008 • History • SIte-Assessment trip June 2007 • Site-Assessment trip June 2008 • Travel Team • Dr. Steve Dentel • Samantha Sagett • Julie Trick • Douglas DeVoto • Sarah O’Neill • Taylor King • Andrew Paulus
Travel Logistics Transportation Itinerary: • June 3 - Flight from Philadelphia International Airport to Yaoundé Cameroon, connecting through Paris and Doula • June 4- Arrive late afternoon in Yaoundé, Cameroon, then transported to hotel via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam • June 5- Transported to Bakang via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam • June 16 – Transported from Bakang, to Yaoundé, via car and driver • June 17- Transported to Yaoundé airport via car and driver; Flight from Yaoundé to Philadelphia International Airport, connecting through Doula and Paris • June 18- Arrive late afternoon at Philadelphia International Airport Lodging Itinerary: • June 4 – Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango • June 5- 16 – Stay at Mr. Mukam’s home in Bamendjou • June 17- Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango
Project Objectives • To provide a minimum of 15 L of potable water per villager per day, primarily for the purposes of drinking and cooking. • Provide a water source that is significantly cleaner, free of fecal coliform bacteria, and conforms as closely as possible to WHO standards. • To reduce the travel time of women and children collecting water through the strategic location of the new water system.
Design Decisions • SSF best score because of: • Ease of Use • Water quality • Scope of Impact • Cost • Sustainability • PV worst score because of: • Cost • Sustainability questions • However, community has requested solar and their commitment to this design solution will make it feasible for the area • Final design decision based on community acceptance
Implementation Objectives • Complete construction of 6 household biosand filters with community members and students at the trade school at the local mission to clean the existing water from streams and hand dug wells. • Start construction of an additional 6 concrete filter containers • Remove the hand pump from the borehole well and install a solar-powered submersible pump and storage tank that can be expanded in the future and will increase the water supply during the dry season. • Partner with a local NGO HydroSante on a water education campaign. • Partner with the School of Public Works in Yaounde to train the Water Committee in technical aspects and maintenance. • Work with Nura Suleiman, a local Peace Corps Volunteer, and the Water Committee to establish a fee structure to pay for the water.
Path Forward: Phase I and II • Phase I: Implementation in June 2008 • 12 Biosand filters with the community and local brick making facility so that they can continue making them after the team has left • A pilot solar well project on a borehole well will be implemented • Phase II: Implementation in January 2009 • Drill multiple wells with solar pump systems, a storage tank at the top of a hill, and a gravitational distribution network. • Conditional on funding and community support • Pilot PV system installed during the Implementation in June 2008 will connect to this system; therefore it is critical that the solar pilot design consider parameters of pumping to the top of the hill.
Intermittent Slow Sand Filtration: www.biosandfilters.org “Under suitable circumstances, slow sand filtration may be not only the cheapest and simplest but also the most effective method of water treatment” - World Health Organization’s Water and Sanitation Division
Overall Slow Sand Efficiency • More than 90% of fecal coliform • 100% of protozoa and helminths • 50-90% of organic and inorganic toxicants • 95-99% of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead • < 67% of iron and manganese • <47% of arsenic • all suspended sediments http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/pdf/OT/TB/TB14_slowsand.pdf
Logistics: SSF Filter • The concrete tanks will be made at the Church in the center of Bamendjou, 5 minute drive. • Equipped with a concrete mixer • Once cured, the concrete tanks will be approximately 211.71 lbs. • The water committee will have a list of volunteers from the community, who will assist our team in lifting the concrete tanks into the Chief’s truck, which will transport the tanks to the village.
Logistics: SSF Filter • EWB- UD will bring 2 previously constructed molds to the village • Six filter containers should be cured and ready to be filled by the end of our two week implementation trip. • Two will be a week into developing the schmutzdecke layer. • Six more concrete containers will be somewhere in the curing process before the team leaves the community.
Current Work • Customizing design plans (www.biosandfilter.org) • Building steel household SSF molds to be left with the community • Prototyping slow sand filteration using a combination of un-sifted sand and a layer of iron in a concrete tank • Will test and analyze results
Pilot PV System: Phase I • Lay cement slab and cinder block base for 2 x 1000L storage tanks • Remove hand pump from borehole well with the assistance of a technician from Baffousam • Install a solar-powered submersible pump • Cap well and run PVC pipe from the pump to two 1000 L storage tanks • Wire a float switch from inside the tank to the controller. • The PV panels will be located on the opposite side of the road on a pole mount and will also be wired to the controller.
Pilot PV System: Phase II • Serves 405 people or 13.5% of the population at 15 Liters per person per day • System will be expanded in future to include • larger storage tank • multiple drilled wells • distribution network
PV and Pump Sizing 11 SQF-2 Grunfos Pump Grundfos CU 200 control
Community Ownership and Contribution • Water Committee will recruit volunteers for construction prior to arrival • Fee on individual basis decided by water committee • Local mission concrete brick making facility • Monitored and supported by Peace Corps Volunteer in community • Community members and ACREST, a local NGO, will be trained in solar system • Water Education campaign by HydroSante, local NGO