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Engineers Without Borders. Water Supply and Distribution System University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang , Cameroon. Implementation June 2008. Project Location: Bakang , Cameroon Village of 3,000 in Highlands Chapter: University of Delaware Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008

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Engineers Without Borders

Water Supply and Distribution System

University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang, Cameroon


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Implementation June 2008

  • Project Location: Bakang, Cameroon

    • Village of 3,000 in Highlands

  • Chapter: University of Delaware

  • Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008

  • History

    • SIte-Assessment trip June 2007

    • Site-Assessment trip June 2008

  • Travel Team

    • Dr. Steve Dentel

    • Samantha Sagett

    • Julie Trick

    • Douglas DeVoto

    • Sarah O’Neill

    • Taylor King

    • Andrew Paulus


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Travel Logistics

Transportation Itinerary:

  • June 3 - Flight from Philadelphia International Airport to Yaoundé Cameroon, connecting through Paris and Doula

  • June 4- Arrive late afternoon in Yaoundé, Cameroon, then transported to hotel via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam

  • June 5- Transported to Bakang via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam

  • June 16 – Transported from Bakang, to Yaoundé, via car and driver

  • June 17- Transported to Yaoundé airport via car and driver; Flight from Yaoundé to Philadelphia International Airport, connecting through Doula and Paris

  • June 18- Arrive late afternoon at Philadelphia International Airport

    Lodging Itinerary:

  • June 4 – Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango

  • June 5- 16 – Stay at Mr. Mukam’s home in Bamendjou

  • June 17- Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango


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Project Objectives

  • To provide a minimum of 15 L of potable water per villager per day, primarily for the purposes of drinking and cooking.

  • Provide a water source that is significantly cleaner, free of fecal coliform bacteria, and conforms as closely as possible to WHO standards.

  • To reduce the travel time of women and children collecting water through the strategic location of the new water system.



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Design Decisions

  • SSF best score because of:

    • Ease of Use

    • Water quality

    • Scope of Impact

    • Cost

    • Sustainability

  • PV worst score because of:

    • Cost

    • Sustainability questions

  • However, community has requested solar and their commitment to this design solution will make it feasible for the area

  • Final design decision based on community acceptance


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Implementation Objectives

  • Complete construction of 6 household biosand filters with community members and students at the trade school at the local mission to clean the existing water from streams and hand dug wells.

  • Start construction of an additional 6 concrete filter containers

  • Remove the hand pump from the borehole well and install a solar-powered submersible pump and storage tank that can be expanded in the future and will increase the water supply during the dry season.

  • Partner with a local NGO HydroSante on a water education campaign.

  • Partner with the School of Public Works in Yaounde to train the Water Committee in technical aspects and maintenance.

  • Work with Nura Suleiman, a local Peace Corps Volunteer, and the Water Committee to establish a fee structure to pay for the water.


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Path Forward: Phase I and II

  • Phase I: Implementation in June 2008

    • 12 Biosand filters with the community and local brick making facility so that they can continue making them after the team has left

    • A pilot solar well project on a borehole well will be implemented

  • Phase II: Implementation in January 2009

    • Drill multiple wells with solar pump systems, a storage tank at the top of a hill, and a gravitational distribution network.

      • Conditional on funding and community support

    • Pilot PV system installed during the Implementation in June 2008 will connect to this system; therefore it is critical that the solar pilot design consider parameters of pumping to the top of the hill.


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Intermittent Slow Sand Filtration: www.biosandfilters.org

“Under suitable circumstances, slow sand filtration may be not only the cheapest and simplest but also the most effective method of water treatment”

- World Health Organization’s Water and Sanitation Division


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Overall Slow Sand Efficiency

  • More than 90% of fecal coliform

  • 100% of protozoa and helminths

  • 50-90% of organic and inorganic toxicants

  • 95-99% of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead

  • < 67% of iron and manganese

  • <47% of arsenic

  • all suspended sediments

http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/pdf/OT/TB/TB14_slowsand.pdf


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Logistics: SSF Filter

  • The concrete tanks will be made at the Church in the center of Bamendjou, 5 minute drive.

    • Equipped with a concrete mixer

  • Once cured, the concrete tanks will be approximately 211.71 lbs.

  • The water committee will have a list of volunteers from the community, who will assist our team in lifting the concrete tanks into the Chief’s truck, which will transport the tanks to the village.


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Logistics: SSF Filter

  • EWB- UD will bring 2 previously constructed molds to the village

    • Six filter containers should be cured and ready to be filled by the end of our two week implementation trip.

      • Two will be a week into developing the schmutzdecke layer.

    • Six more concrete containers will be somewhere in the curing process before the team leaves the community.


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Current Work

  • Customizing design plans (www.biosandfilter.org)

  • Building steel household SSF molds to be left with the community

  • Prototyping slow sand filteration using a combination of un-sifted sand and a layer of iron in a concrete tank

    • Will test and analyze results


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Pilot PV System: Phase I

  • Lay cement slab and cinder block base for 2 x 1000L storage tanks

  • Remove hand pump from borehole well with the assistance of a technician from Baffousam

  • Install a solar-powered submersible pump

  • Cap well and run PVC pipe from the pump to two 1000 L storage tanks

  • Wire a float switch from inside the tank to the controller.

  • The PV panels will be located on the opposite side of the road on a pole mount and will also be wired to the controller.


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Pilot PV System: Phase II

  • Serves 405 people or 13.5% of the population at 15 Liters per person per day

  • System will be expanded in future to include

    • larger storage tank

    • multiple drilled wells

    • distribution network


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PV and Pump Sizing

11 SQF-2 Grunfos Pump

Grundfos CU 200 control



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Community Ownership and Contribution

  • Water Committee will recruit volunteers for construction prior to arrival

  • Fee on individual basis decided by water committee

  • Local mission concrete brick making facility

  • Monitored and supported by Peace Corps Volunteer in community

  • Community members and ACREST, a local NGO, will be trained in solar system

  • Water Education campaign by HydroSante, local NGO