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Engineers Without Borders. Water Supply and Distribution System University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang , Cameroon. Implementation June 2008. Project Location: Bakang , Cameroon Village of 3,000 in Highlands Chapter: University of Delaware Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008

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engineers without borders

Engineers Without Borders

Water Supply and Distribution System

University of Delaware In partnership with Bakang, Cameroon

implementation june 2008
Implementation June 2008
  • Project Location: Bakang, Cameroon
    • Village of 3,000 in Highlands
  • Chapter: University of Delaware
  • Travel Dates: June 3-18, 2008
  • History
    • SIte-Assessment trip June 2007
    • Site-Assessment trip June 2008
  • Travel Team
    • Dr. Steve Dentel
    • Samantha Sagett
    • Julie Trick
    • Douglas DeVoto
    • Sarah O’Neill
    • Taylor King
    • Andrew Paulus
travel logistics
Travel Logistics

Transportation Itinerary:

  • June 3 - Flight from Philadelphia International Airport to Yaoundé Cameroon, connecting through Paris and Doula
  • June 4- Arrive late afternoon in Yaoundé, Cameroon, then transported to hotel via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam
  • June 5- Transported to Bakang via car and driver arranged by Mr. Mukam
  • June 16 – Transported from Bakang, to Yaoundé, via car and driver
  • June 17- Transported to Yaoundé airport via car and driver; Flight from Yaoundé to Philadelphia International Airport, connecting through Doula and Paris
  • June 18- Arrive late afternoon at Philadelphia International Airport

Lodging Itinerary:

  • June 4 – Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango
  • June 5- 16 – Stay at Mr. Mukam’s home in Bamendjou
  • June 17- Stay in Yaoundé at Hotel Le Tango
project objectives
Project Objectives
  • To provide a minimum of 15 L of potable water per villager per day, primarily for the purposes of drinking and cooking.
  • Provide a water source that is significantly cleaner, free of fecal coliform bacteria, and conforms as closely as possible to WHO standards.
  • To reduce the travel time of women and children collecting water through the strategic location of the new water system.
design decisions
Design Decisions
  • SSF best score because of:
    • Ease of Use
    • Water quality
    • Scope of Impact
    • Cost
    • Sustainability
  • PV worst score because of:
    • Cost
    • Sustainability questions
  • However, community has requested solar and their commitment to this design solution will make it feasible for the area
  • Final design decision based on community acceptance
implementation objectives
Implementation Objectives
  • Complete construction of 6 household biosand filters with community members and students at the trade school at the local mission to clean the existing water from streams and hand dug wells.
  • Start construction of an additional 6 concrete filter containers
  • Remove the hand pump from the borehole well and install a solar-powered submersible pump and storage tank that can be expanded in the future and will increase the water supply during the dry season.
  • Partner with a local NGO HydroSante on a water education campaign.
  • Partner with the School of Public Works in Yaounde to train the Water Committee in technical aspects and maintenance.
  • Work with Nura Suleiman, a local Peace Corps Volunteer, and the Water Committee to establish a fee structure to pay for the water.
path forward phase i and ii
Path Forward: Phase I and II
  • Phase I: Implementation in June 2008
    • 12 Biosand filters with the community and local brick making facility so that they can continue making them after the team has left
    • A pilot solar well project on a borehole well will be implemented
  • Phase II: Implementation in January 2009
    • Drill multiple wells with solar pump systems, a storage tank at the top of a hill, and a gravitational distribution network.
      • Conditional on funding and community support
    • Pilot PV system installed during the Implementation in June 2008 will connect to this system; therefore it is critical that the solar pilot design consider parameters of pumping to the top of the hill.
intermittent slow sand filtration www biosandfilters org
Intermittent Slow Sand Filtration:

“Under suitable circumstances, slow sand filtration may be not only the cheapest and simplest but also the most effective method of water treatment”

- World Health Organization’s Water and Sanitation Division

overall slow sand efficiency
Overall Slow Sand Efficiency
  • More than 90% of fecal coliform
  • 100% of protozoa and helminths
  • 50-90% of organic and inorganic toxicants
  • 95-99% of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead
  • < 67% of iron and manganese
  • <47% of arsenic
  • all suspended sediments

logistics ssf filter
Logistics: SSF Filter
  • The concrete tanks will be made at the Church in the center of Bamendjou, 5 minute drive.
    • Equipped with a concrete mixer
  • Once cured, the concrete tanks will be approximately 211.71 lbs.
  • The water committee will have a list of volunteers from the community, who will assist our team in lifting the concrete tanks into the Chief’s truck, which will transport the tanks to the village.
logistics ssf filter13
Logistics: SSF Filter
  • EWB- UD will bring 2 previously constructed molds to the village
    • Six filter containers should be cured and ready to be filled by the end of our two week implementation trip.
      • Two will be a week into developing the schmutzdecke layer.
    • Six more concrete containers will be somewhere in the curing process before the team leaves the community.
current work
Current Work
  • Customizing design plans (
  • Building steel household SSF molds to be left with the community
  • Prototyping slow sand filteration using a combination of un-sifted sand and a layer of iron in a concrete tank
    • Will test and analyze results
pilot pv system phase i
Pilot PV System: Phase I
  • Lay cement slab and cinder block base for 2 x 1000L storage tanks
  • Remove hand pump from borehole well with the assistance of a technician from Baffousam
  • Install a solar-powered submersible pump
  • Cap well and run PVC pipe from the pump to two 1000 L storage tanks
  • Wire a float switch from inside the tank to the controller.
  • The PV panels will be located on the opposite side of the road on a pole mount and will also be wired to the controller.
pilot pv system phase ii
Pilot PV System: Phase II
  • Serves 405 people or 13.5% of the population at 15 Liters per person per day
  • System will be expanded in future to include
    • larger storage tank
    • multiple drilled wells
    • distribution network
pv and pump sizing
PV and Pump Sizing

11 SQF-2 Grunfos Pump

Grundfos CU 200 control

community ownership and contribution
Community Ownership and Contribution
  • Water Committee will recruit volunteers for construction prior to arrival
  • Fee on individual basis decided by water committee
  • Local mission concrete brick making facility
  • Monitored and supported by Peace Corps Volunteer in community
  • Community members and ACREST, a local NGO, will be trained in solar system
  • Water Education campaign by HydroSante, local NGO