Revised, 10/5/06 Buddhism The Rise and Development of Buddhism
Indian Religion in the 6th & 5th centuries BC • Hinduism • Jainism Brahmins - priestly ritual religion Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation & yoga Yoga combined with extreme asceticism & nonviolence
The BuddhaSiddhartha Gautama(563-483 BC) • Birth • Youth • Marriage & parenthood • The Four Passing Sights (aging, sickness, death, renunciation) • The Great Renunciation • The Great Going Forth • The Great Enlightenment • The Great Ministry • The Great Decease
Origin of Buddhism Spread of Buddhism during the lifetime of the Buddha
The Three Refuges(Jewels) • The Buddha • The Dharma (teachings, doctrine) • The Sangha (the Order)
The Teachings of the Buddha The Four Noble Truths
Preface to the Four Noble Truths:The Middle Path By avoiding these two extremes, we discover a Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which bestows understanding, and which leads to peace of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana. Two extremes to be avoided: (1) Hedonism (2) Asceticism This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration . . . .
2. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering Tanha *Some traditions make (c) a craving for prosperity or for personal happiness.
4. The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the cessation of suffering Astapada
Elaboration of the Noble Eightfold Path Wisdom (prajna) • Right views (Samma ditthi) • Right intent (Samma sankappa) • Right speech (Samma vaca) • Right conduct (Samma kammanta) • Right livelihood (Samma ajiva) • Right effort (Samma vayama) • Right mindfulness (Samma sati) • Right concentration (Samma samadhi) Morality (sila) Meditation (samadhi)
(Eightfold Path, continued) Wisdom 1. Right Views • The Four Noble Truths • The doctrine of no-self (anatta, anatman) • Transitoriness (anicca): impermanence • The Five Components or Aggregates (skandhas) of human personhood • Interdependent Origination • Karma & Samsara (rebirth) • Nirvana (what is it?)
(No-self, cont’d) The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood Body (rupa) Person Sensation (vedana) Consciousness (vinnana) Perception (sanna) Volition (sankhara) Mind (nama)
It is through the five skandhas (components, attributes) that a human being typically clings to existence and, as a result, becomes subject to suffering (dukkha). Knowing and seeing the nature of, the origin of, and how to extinguish (end) the five components of body [corporeality], sensation, consciousness, perception, and volition brings about the cessation of selfish craving.
So… • a "person" is composed of five components: four "mind" components - sensation, consciousness, perception, volition; and one physical component, i.e., the body. That's all a "person" is. • And, like anything else, these components are constantly changing (transitory and impermanent). • Note that on the list of the five "skandhas" (components), there is no "self," especially no unchanging, permanent, eternal Self (Atman).
(No-self, cont’d) The doctrine ofInterdependent Origination(Paticca Samuppada) The interdependence & relativity of all things No separate beings No distinct individuals No eternal essences No "own-natures"
According to the doctrine of interdependent origination, • all things arise, develop, and dissolve in relation to and in interdependence with (or dependence on) all other things. • Nothing has an independent (non-relative), individual, or permanent existence. • Thus, there is no separate, individual, unchanging, or eternal Self.
The 12. 1. Aging & Dying Ignorance 2. Wheel of 11. Impulse to Exist Birth Heaven 3. 10. Con- scious- ness Human Realm Demon Realm Becom- ing Greed Delusion Hatred Bhavachakra 4. 9. Hungry Ghost Realm Animal Realm Mind- Body Cling- ing Note that the Wheel is driven by the "Three Great Poisons" at the center: greed, delusion, & hatred. Becoming 8. 5. Six Senses Hell Craving 6. 7. Sensations Contact
(Eightfold Path, continued) 2. Right Intent(Resolution) Wisdom Right intent or resolution is the intent or resolution to live & act in accordance with right views.
No lying No slander No harsh or rude talk No profanity No impolite or abusive language No idle or foolish chatter Strive to use language meaningfully & usefully, with wisdom & kindness Learn to maintain “noble silence” (Eightfold Path, continued) 3. Right Speech Morality
No harming & killing No stealing No lying & deceitfulness No sexual immorality No use of intoxicants Eat moderately & not after noon. Stay away from dancing, singing, & dramatic spectacles. Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or ornaments. Do not use high or broad (soft) beds. Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?). (Eightfold Path, continued) 4. Right Conduct Morality The Five Precepts (for everybody) & the Ten Precepts (for monks & nuns)
(Eightfold Path, continued) Morality 5. Right Livelihood(Vocation) • Choose professions that promote life, peace, & spiritual progress (especially life in the Sangha). • Specifically prohibited professions: poison peddler, slave trader, prostitute, butcher, manufacturer & trader of liquor & other intoxicants, weapons manufacturer & trader, tax collector, caravan trader.
(Eightfold Path, continued) 6. Right Effort(purification of the mind) • Preventing evil & unwholesome states of mind from arising • Getting rid of such states of mind that may already exist • Bringing about good & wholesome states of mind • Developing & perfecting good & wholesome states of mind that are already present Meditation
Meditation 7. Right Mindfulness (Eightfold Path, continued) • Activities of the body (breathing, walking, sitting, eating, heartbeat, etc.) • Feelings (anger, fear, joy, pleasure, pain, etc.) • States of mind (thoughts, ideas, etc.) • Ways of conceptualizing things (the Four Noble Truths, the Wheel of Becoming, etc.) Focusing of attention on:
The highest level of Meditation One-pointed concentration and the four absorptions: Detachment from all sense objects & from negative states of mind; thought processes accompanied by joy Cessation of all mental activities; internal calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great elation Cessation of all passions & prejudices; continued sense of joy Cessation of joy; total tranquillity & equanimity -- Nirvana (& arhatship) (Eightfold Path, continued) 8. Right Concentration Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime Moods: love, compassion, cheerfulness, & impartiality
Four Stages of Advancementalong the Noble Eightfold Path The Ten Fetters 1 Belief in permanent self 2 Doubt 3 Belief in religious rituals 4 Sensual craving 5 Ill will 6 Desire for rebirth in worlds of form 7 Desire for rebirth in formless realms 8 Pride 9 Self-righteousness 10 Ignorance of the true nature of things Stream- Entrant Once- Returner Non- Returner Overcomes 1-3 Overcomes 1-5 Arhat Overcomes all
The Historical Evolution of Buddhism
The Major Buddhist Traditions • Theravada(“The Way of the Elders”) - Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia • Mahayana(“The Greater Vehicle”) - China, Korea, & Japan (& Tibet & Mongolia) • Vajrayana(“The Way of the Diamond Thunderbolt”) - Tibet & Mongolia * * * Vajrayana is a development within the Mahayana tradition.
The Early Schools & the Rise of Theravada (4th century BC - 1st century AD)
Council at Rajagraha (483BC) Council at Vaisali(383 BC) Sthaviravada Mahasamghika Council at Pataliputta (247 BC) Vibhajyavada Sarvastivada (c. 225 BC) (c. 200 BC) Theravada Vatsiputriya Golulika Ekavyavaharika Sammatiya Bhadrayamiya Dharmottariya Sammagurika Lokottaravada (c. 180 BC) Bahushrutiya Prajnaptivada Mahisasaka Kasyapiya Dharmaguptaka (c. 125 BC) (c. 100 BC) * * Vaibheshika Sautrantika * Caitika (c. 50 BC) Uttarashaila * Aparashaila *Contributed to rise of Mahayana
The Rise & Development of Mahayana (& Vajrayana)
India China Japan Tibet Mahayana Buddhism * Madhyamaka (2d-3d centuries AD) Three Treatise School San-lun Sanron Ashvaghosa (1st century AD) ** Consciousness-Only Yogacara (3d-4th centuries AD) Mei-shih Hosso Tantrayana (3d century AD) Chen-yen Shingon (True Word) Vajrayana(a/k/a Tantrayana& Mantrayana) Jodo-shu & Jodo-shin-shu Sukhavati (Pure Land) (1st century AD) Ching-tu Ch’an Ti’en-Tai (Lotus) Hua-yen (Flower Graland) Zen Tendai Nicheren Shoshu *Nagarjuna **Vasubandhu
The Spread of Buddhism Spheres of Influence * Buddhism out of India by 1000 AD * Theravada Mahayana Vajrayana