Revised, 10/5/06. Buddhism. The Rise and Development of Buddhism. Indian Religion in the 6th & 5th centuries BC. Hinduism Jainism. Brahmins - priestly ritual religion. Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation & yoga. Yoga combined with extreme asceticism & nonviolence.
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Brahmins - priestly ritual religion
Sannyasins (wandering monks) - renunciation & yoga
Yoga combined with extreme asceticism & nonviolence
Spread of Buddhism during the lifetime of the Buddha
The Four Noble Truths
By avoiding these two extremes, we discover a Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which bestows understanding, and which leads to peace of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana.
Two extremes to be avoided:
This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration . . . .
*Some traditions make (c) a craving for prosperity or for personal happiness.
that a human being typically clings to existence and, as a result, becomes subject to suffering (dukkha).
Knowing and seeing the nature of, the origin of, and how to extinguish (end) the five components of body [corporeality], sensation, consciousness, perception, and volition brings about the cessation of selfish craving.
The interdependence & relativity of all things
No separate beings
No distinct individuals
No eternal essences
Aging & Dying
Impulse to Exist
Con- scious- ness
Greed Delusion Hatred
Hungry Ghost Realm
Note that the Wheel is driven by the "Three Great Poisons" at the center: greed, delusion, & hatred.
No lying & deceitfulness
No sexual immorality
No use of intoxicants
Eat moderately & not after noon.
Stay away from dancing, singing, & dramatic spectacles.
Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or ornaments.
Do not use high or broad (soft) beds.
Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?).
(Eightfold Path, continued)4. Right Conduct
The Five Precepts (for everybody) & the Ten Precepts (for monks & nuns)
Morality5. Right Livelihood(Vocation)
(Eightfold Path, continued)
Focusing of attention on:
the four absorptions:
Detachment from all sense objects & from negative states of mind; thought processes accompanied by joy
Cessation of all mental activities; internal calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great elation
Cessation of all passions & prejudices; continued sense of joy
Cessation of joy; total tranquillity & equanimity -- Nirvana (& arhatship)
(Eightfold Path, continued)8. Right Concentration
Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime Moods: love, compassion, cheerfulness, & impartiality
1 Belief in permanent self
3 Belief in religious rituals
4 Sensual craving
5 Ill will
6 Desire for rebirth in worlds of form
7 Desire for rebirth in formless realms
10 Ignorance of the true nature of things
Vajrayana is a development within the Mahayana tradition.
& the Rise of Theravada
(4th century BC - 1st century AD)
Council at Vaisali(383 BC)
Council at Pataliputta (247 BC)
(c. 225 BC)
(c. 200 BC)
Sammatiya Bhadrayamiya Dharmottariya Sammagurika
(c. 180 BC)
Mahisasaka Kasyapiya Dharmaguptaka
(c. 125 BC)
(c. 100 BC)
(c. 50 BC)
*Contributed to rise of Mahayana
of Mahayana (& Vajrayana)
Madhyamaka (2d-3d centuries AD)
Three Treatise School
Ashvaghosa (1st century AD)
Yogacara (3d-4th centuries AD)
Tantrayana (3d century AD)
Shingon (True Word)
Vajrayana(a/k/a Tantrayana& Mantrayana)
Jodo-shu & Jodo-shin-shu
Sukhavati (Pure Land) (1st century AD)
Hua-yen (Flower Graland)
Spheres of Influence
Buddhism out of India by 1000 AD