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RED ALERT! The Circulatory System and the Blood. Blood. Blood is a heterogeneous mixture. It is a COLLOID , and has four main components Red corpuscles (red blood cells) White corpuscles (white blood cells) Plasma (fluid) Platelets. Red Blood Cells.

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RED ALERT! The Circulatory System and the Blood


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blood
Blood

Blood is a heterogeneous mixture. It is a COLLOID, and has four main components

Red corpuscles (red

blood cells)

White corpuscles (white blood cells)

Plasma (fluid)

Platelets

red blood cells
Red Blood Cells

Carry Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide with the help of Hemoglobin

They are produced in the bone marrow

They live only 3-4 months and have no nucleus

blood types
Blood Types

Red blood cells will have proteins which stick out. They are called Antigens

The opposite of antigens are Antibodies

If an antigen meets it’s antibody, they clump and form clots, which are BAD!!

rh antigen rhesus system
Rh antigen: Rhesus System

Blood, of all types, can also have an Rh antigen on them and there is an antibody for it.

If a person has this antigen, they will have a + next to their blood type (ex: A+ means they have the A and Rh antigen)

If a person does not have this antigen, they will have a – next to their blood type (ex: A- means they only have the A antigen)

donors recipients
Donors & Recipients
  • When you are looking at donors and recipients, you must make surethe antibodies of the recipient do not attack the antigens of the donor
  • ONLY LOOK AT ANTIBODIES OF RECIPIENT AND ANTIGENS OF DONOR!!!
  • The antibodies of the donor are not recognized by the recipients body and are destroyed
  • O- is the universal donor and AB+is theuniversal recipient for blood transfusions.
plasma
Plasma

It carries Nutrients and Hormones (chemical messages) to the cells

It carries Urea and Carbon dioxide away from the cells.

Plasma suspends red and white blood cells so they can flow through the body. It also has:

- clotting factor

- antibodies and

- carries off solid waste.

platelets
Platelets

Smaller than red blood cells

Responsible for clotting

Link together to form scabs when in contact with air.

White blood cells

  • They are the main defense against disease.
  • No hemoglobin
  • Can pass through capillary walls.
white blood cells
White blood cells

White blood cells kill bacteria and viruses through:

Phagocytosis – eating them with help from antibodies

2) Antibodies – Latch onto bacteria/viruses

pathogens
Pathogens

Pathogens are viruses and bacteria.

the circulatory system
The Circulatory System
  • The Circulatory System is the major transportation system in the body.

Pulmonary circulation carries blood that contains carbon dioxide TO THE LUNGS, where it gets rid of the waste and is resupplied with oxygen

Systemic circulation carries the oxygenated blood to cells in the body and supplies them with nutrients as well.

purpose
Purpose
  • It serves to:
  • 1)transport food and oxygen to the body,
  • 2) Pick up waste produced for removal from the body,
  • 3) Help regulate body temperature.
the heart
The Heart
  • This is the motor (pump) that makes the system work.
inside the heart
Inside the Heart

The Heart is made up of muscle tissue and has four main chambers

The right atrium

The right ventricle

The left atrium

And the left ventricle

The heart also has valves to prevent backflow of blood

the human highways
The Human Highways
  • The “highways” and “roads” of the body are collectively, they are called blood vessels. They are:
  • Arteries
  • Veins

3) Capillaries.

arteries
Arteries
  • Arteries take blood awayfrom the heart.
  • Arterioles are smaller arteries.
  • They have thick walls and contain a layer of muscle.
  • Blood pumped from the heart is under high pressure, so it produces small bulges along the artery.
veins
Veins
  • They carry blood to the heart.
  • Venules are smaller veins
  • They have a thinner muscular layer with lower blood pressure.
  • Surrounding muscles help blood to flow though veins
  • They also contain backflow valves.
capillaries
Capillaries
  • Link Arterioles to Venules
  • Have thin walls so gas exchange can happen.
blood circulation
Blood Circulation
  • Right Atrium  Right Ventricle  Pulmonary Artery Arterioles Pulmonary capillaries  blood gets oxygenated  Venules Pulmonary Veins  Left Atrium  Left Ventricle
  • Left ventricle  Aorta  Arterioles  BODY’s capillaries Venules/Veins  Vena Cavae (superior or inferior)  Right atrium
slide22

The walls of the left ventricle are thicker (more muscular) than those of the right ventricle because the left ventricle has to push blood into the entire body, whereas the right ventricle only has to push blood as far as the lungs.

BLOOD ALWAYS LEAVES THE VENTRICLES, GOES THROUGH THE BODY, AND COMES BACK INTO THE ATRIUMS!!

blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure has two types, Systolic and Diastolic.
  • Systolic pressure is measured when pressure exerted by blood on artery walls is at its maximum (when the ventricles in the heart contact)
  • Diastolic pressure is measured when pressure exerted by blood on artery walls is at its minimum (when ventricles are not contracting)
  • Blood pressure = systolic pressure (bigger #)

diastolic pressure (smaller #)

review pressure
REVIEW: Pressure
  • Mathematically, Pressure (symbol: ‘p') is the force per unit area applied on a surface.

p = F

A

F= Force

A= Area

The units are N/m2orPaormm of Hg

review what is pressure
REVIEW: What is pressure?
  • Pressure is the result of molecules or atoms bouncing off each other and the surfaces that hold the fluid in.
  • So what happens to pressure if we increase temperature?
  • Hint:

IT INCREASES!!

slide26
So…..
  • What happens to pressure if:
    • You have a lot of force acting on a small area?
  • High Pressure
    • Same force but over a larger area?
  • Lower Pressure
    • Lower force acting on a huge area?
  • Very Low Pressure
area formula
Area Formula

What general shape do you think our blood vessels are?

They are Cylinders!

Arteries have a bigger surface area so that they can withstand high force of heart on blood and pressure will be lower

compressible non compressible fluids
Compressible/Non-compressible Fluids
  • In general fluids (gases and liquids) fit into two categories.
  • Compressible: With increased pressure, the volume and temperature will change (decrease).
  • Non-compressible: With increased pressure the volume and temperature will NOT change (decrease).
  • Blood is a non-compressible fluid
slide29
Fluids move from high pressure to low pressure area.
  • What if the fluid can not pass?
  • The blood vessel will burst!
heart health
Heart Health
  • If blood pressure is to high, you have Hypertension, to low, Hypotension.
  • Hypertension is usually cause by a narrowing of blood vessels due to cholesterol build up.