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CHAPTER 9. Blood and Lymphatic Systems. Blood System Overview. Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells Blood removes carbon dioxide and other waste products from body cells for elimination. Composition of Blood. Plasma 90 percent water = liquid portion of blood

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CHAPTER 9


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    1. CHAPTER 9 Blood and Lymphatic Systems

    2. Blood System Overview • Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to body cells • Blood removes carbon dioxide and other waste products from body cells for elimination

    3. Composition of Blood • Plasma • 90 percent water = liquid portion of blood • Transports cellular elements of blood throughout circulatory system • Remaining portion = solutes • Electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, bilirubin, and gases • Most abundant solutes are plasma proteins: albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

    4. Composition of Blood • Solid components • Formed elements = cells + cell fragments • Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes

    5. Plasma Proteins • Albumins • Constitute about 60 percent of the plasma proteins • Help maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure • Help to maintain balance between fluid in the blood and fluid in the interstitial tissues

    6. Plasma Proteins • Globulins • Constitute approximately 36 percent of plasma proteins • Alpha and beta globulins transport lipids (fats) and fat-soluble vitamins in blood • Gamma globulins are antibodies and function in immunity

    7. Plasma Proteins • Fibrinogen • Constitutes approximately 4 percent of plasma proteins • Largest of plasma proteins • Essential in process of blood clotting

    8. Question True or False: The blood has 2 main components: plasma and proteins.

    9. Blood Cells • Erythrocytes • Known as red blood cells (RBC) • Tiny biconcave-shaped disks • Thinner in center than around edges • No nucleus in mature red blood cell • Average life span = approximately 120 days • Main component = hemoglobin • Primary function = transport oxygen to cells of body

    10. Blood Cells • Leukocytes • Known as white blood cells (WBC) • Larger than erythrocytes, but fewer in number • Mature WBC has a nucleus; does not have hemoglobin • Two categories = granulocytes + agranulocytes • Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm • Agranulocytes have no granules in their cytoplasm • Five different types of leukocytes within the categories

    11. Granulocytes • Neutrophils • Constitute approximately 60 to 70 percent of all WBCs • Have multi-lobed nuclei • Phagocytic in nature • Do not absorb acid or base dye well • Remain fairly neutral color

    12. Granulocytes • Eosinophils • Constitute approximately 2 to 4 percent of all WBCs • Have a nucleus with two lobes • Increase in number in response to allergic reactions • Stain a red, rosy color with an acid dye

    13. Granulocytes • Basophils • Constitute less than 1 percent of all WBCs • Have a nucleus with two lobes • Secrete histamine during allergic reactions • Secrete heparin, a natural anticoagulant • Stain a dark blue with a base dye

    14. Agranulocytes • Monocytes • Constitute approximately 3 to 8 percent of all WBCs • Largest of all white blood cells • Have a kidney bean-shaped nucleus • Phagocytic in nature

    15. Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Constitute approximately 20 to 25 percent of all WBCs • Have a large spherical-shaped nucleus • Play important role in immune process • Some lymphocytes are phagocytic • Other lymphocytes produce antibodies

    16. Cell Fragments • Thrombocytes • Small, disc-shaped fragments of very large cells called megakaryocytes • Also known as platelets • Contain no hemoglobin • Essential for normal clotting of blood

    17. Question Why would an erythrocyte not have a nucleus? • It is still an immature cell. • It needs maximum room to carry oxygen to the body's cells. • It is a rare mutation but otherwise is present. • Hemoglobin already has one.

    18. Blood Types • Blood Type A • Has A-antigen present on RBC • Has Anti-B antibody present in plasma • Blood Type B • Has B-antigen present on RBC • Has Anti-A antibody present in plasma

    19. Blood Types • Blood Type AB • Has AB-antigens present on RBC • Has no antibodies present in plasma • Blood Type O • Has no antigens present on RBC • Has both Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies present in plasma

    20. Terms Related to Blood Transfusions • Donor • Person who gives blood • Recipient • Person who receives blood

    21. Terms Related to Blood Transfusions • Universal donor blood • Type O • No A antigens or B antigens present on its RBCs • Universal recipient blood • Type AB • No Anti-A or Anti-B antigens present in its plasma

    22. Rh Factor • Rh positive (Rh+) • Rh antigen is present on the RBC • Rh negative (Rh-) • Rh antigen not present on the RBC • Concern: Rh- blood being exposed to Rh+ blood via transfusion • Concern: Rh- mother giving birth to Rh+ baby and blood mixes during birth process

    23. Blood Clotting • Clotting of blood = coagulation • Injury to blood vessel creates roughened area in vessel • Platelets come in contact with rough spot and disintegrate • Release substance called thromboplastin • Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin • In presence of calcium ions and other clotting factors • Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin • Fibrin threads form a mesh that forms the clot

    24. Question The Red Cross loves to call a person with this blood type: • A • B • AB • O

    25. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS The Blood

    26. Anemia • Pronounced • (an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Deficiency of oxygen being delivered to cells due to decrease in quantity of hemoglobin or red blood cells

    27. Anemia • Similarities in all types of anemia • Fatigue • Paleness of skin • Headache • Fainting

    28. Anemia • Similarities in all types of anemia • Tingling sensations and numbness • Loss of appetite • Swelling in lower extremities • Difficulty breathing

    29. Aplastic Anemia • Pronounced • (ah-PLAST-ik an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Form of anemia characterized by pancytopenia, an inadequacy of all the formed blood elements (RBCs, WBCs, platelets) • Also known as “bone marrow depression anemia”

    30. Hemolytic Anemia • Pronounced • (he-moh-LIT-ik an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Form of anemia characterized by the extreme reduction in circulating RBCs due to their destruction

    31. Iron Deficiency Anemia • Pronounced • (EYE-urn dee-FIH-shen-see an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Anemia that is characterized by deficiency of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body

    32. Pernicious Anemia • Pronounced • (per-NISH-us an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Form of anemia resulting from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts, with marked poikilocytosis and anisocytosis • Distorted RBCs due to lack of vitamin B12 absorption necessary for maturation of RBCs

    33. Sickle Cell Anemia • Pronounced • (SIKLSELL an-NEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which RBCs become crescent-shaped in presence of low oxygen concentration • Crescent-shaped RBCs clump together forming thromboses which occlude small blood vessels, causing much pain for the individual

    34. Question True or False: The breakdown of anemia is an = without, -emia = blood condition (noun form).

    35. Granulocytosis • Pronounced • (gran-yew-loh-sigh-TOH-sis) • Defined • Abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection

    36. Hemochromatosis • Pronounced • (hee-moh-kroh-mah-TOH-sis) • Defined • Rare iron metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body • Usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias

    37. Hemophilia • Pronounced • (hee-moh-FILL-ee-ah) • Defined • Hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times

    38. Hemophilia • Hemophilia A • Also called classic hemophilia • Result of a deficiency or absence of antihemophilic factor VIII • Deficiency results in traumatic or spontaneous bleeding • Characterized by bleeding in joints, gums, or mouth • Hematuria is a common characteristic

    39. Hemophilia • Hemophilia B • Also called Christmas disease • Result of deficiency of a coagulation factor called factor IX • Only distinguishable from hemophilia A through laboratory differentiation of factor deficiencies

    40. Leukemia • Pronounced • (loo-KEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood, eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia • Course of leukemia is subclassified as acute or chronic

    41. Leukemia • Acute leukemia • Rapid onset • Swiftly progresses to severe thrombocytopenia, progressive anemia, infective lesions in throat and mouth, high fever, and severe infection • Chronic leukemia • Gradual onset • Progression slower than with acute form

    42. Leukemia • Classifications of leukemia • AML • Acute myelogenous leukemia • ALL • Acute lymphocytic leukemia

    43. Leukemia • Classifications of leukemia • CML • Chronic myelogenous leukemia • CLL • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    44. Question True or False: Granulocytosis is an overreaction by the WBCs with granules to inflammation and infection.

    45. Multiple Myeloma (Plasma Cell Myeloma) • Pronounced • (MULL-tih-pl my-eh-LOH-mah) • Defined • Malignant plasma cell neoplasm causing an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells • Often entirely replaces the bone marrow and destroys the skeletal structure

    46. Polycythemia Vera • Pronounced • (pol-ee-sigh-THEE-mee-ah VAIR-ah) • Defined • Abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity

    47. Purpura • Pronounced • (PURR-pew-rah) • Defined • Collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura = antibodies formed by the individual that destroy his/her own platelets

    48. Thalassemia • Pronounced • (thal-ah-SEE-mee-ah) • Defined • Hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochromic microcytic RBCs • Alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective

    49. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS, AND PROCEDURES The Blood

    50. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Direct antiglobulin test (Coomb’s test) • Blood test used to discover the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh-negative woman • Production of these antibodies is associated with an Rh incompatibility between a pregnant Rh-negative woman and her Rh-positive fetus