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COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES DEFINITIONAL ISSUES Cognitive-motivational units and self-regulation COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ABOUT THE SELF Higgins: real/ideal/ought selves Dweck: incremental vs. entity self-theories MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS Types

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slide1

COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

    • DEFINITIONAL ISSUES
      • Cognitive-motivational units and self-regulation
    • COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ABOUT THE SELF
      • Higgins: real/ideal/ought selves
      • Dweck: incremental vs. entity self-theories
    • MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS
      • Types
      • Personal strivings and mental and physical well-being
slide2

Do you remember this from intro lecture on motives?

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR:
  • raises and fades over time
  • coherent (organized)
  • persistent and efficient
  • associated to a network of cognitions(images, beliefs, plans)
  • has emotional correlates and consequences(e.g., frustration)
slide3

Integrating motives and cognitions ….

COGNITIVE-MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES:

Modern social-personality theories that emphasize the link between cognitions (beliefs, schemas, etc.) and motivation (goals, needs) in predicting behavior (e.g., persistence of action, emotions)

slide4

Self-regulation: how cognitions, motivations, and emotions interact

RED: emotions

GREEN: motivations

PURPLE: cognitions

slide6

HIGGINS (1987): Real, Ideal, and Ought selves

  • Self-discrepancy theory: We are highly motivated to reduce discrepancies between how we actually see ourselves and how we actually would like to be and how we think we ought to be.
  • Real/Ideal discrepancies lead to feelings of depression and real/ought discrepancies to feelings of anxiety.

OUGHT REAL IDEAL

slide7

Higgins’ empirical demonstration of how real/ideal discrepancies lead to feelings of depression and real/ought discrepancies to feelings of anxiety:

IDEAL PRIMING: Asking subjects to write an essay about about the qualities they would love to have (but don’t have)

OUGHT PRIMING: Asking subjects to write an essay about about the qualities they think it’s their duty to have (but don’t have)

slide10

BROAD, DECONTEXTUALIZED

MIDDLE-LEVEL UNITS

SPECIFIC, SITUATIONAL

slide11

advantages disadvantagesLEVEL 1highly personal highly decontextualized low B predictive valueLEVEL 4highly contextualized highly impersonal high B predictive valueLEVELS 2&3 personal contextualized medium B predictive value

slide14

HAVING HIGH VS. LOW LEVEL OF STRIVINGS HAS DIFFERENT HEALTH CORRELATES !!

(Emmons, 1992)

Mostly High  worse mental health(e.g., more anxiety, depression)

(e.g., improving this world)

Mostly Low worse physical health(e.g. more colds, headaches)

(e.g., be funny)

Question for the class:Why?