QOTD. “One cannot step twice in the same river.”. Heraclitus (ca. 540 – ca. 480 BCE). Defend/rebuke and explain your rationale. 75+ words. Select Team member to orally present. Heraclitus (ca. 540 – ca. 480 BCE). Heraclitus (ca. 540 – ca. 480 BCE).
“One cannot step twice in the same river.”
Heraclitus (ca. 540 – ca. 480 BCE)
Heraclitus lived in Ephesus, an important city on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor, not far from Miletus, the birthplace of philosophy.
Little is known, except from his writings.
Heraclitus criticizes his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience.
Opposites are necessary for life, but they are unified in a system of balanced exchanges.
The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements, symbolized by fire.
Thus, the world is not to be identified with any particular substance, but rather with an ongoing process governed by a law of change.
The underlying law of nature also manifests itself as a moral law for human beings.
Heraclitus first Western philosopher to go beyond physical theory in search of metaphysical foundations and moral applications.
His message: >reality is constantly changing >reality an ongoing process rather than a fixed and stable product.
Buddhism shares a similar metaphysical view: >annica -- the claim that all reality is fleeting and impermanent.
>In modern times Henri Bergson (1859 – 1941) described time as a process that is experienced.
>An hour waiting in line is different from an hour at play.
>Today contemporary physics lends credence to process with the realization that even apparently stable objects, like marble statues, are actually moving, buzzing bunches of electrons and other subatomic particles.
“It is only necessary to make war with five things; with the maladies of the body, the ignorances of the mind, with the passions of the body, with the seditions of the city and the discords of families.”
580 B.C.E. - 507 B.C.E.
Thales & Anaximander
(1) that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature,(2) that philosophy can be used for spiritual purification,(3) that the soul can rise to union with the divine,(4) that certain symbols have a mystical significance, and(5) that all brothers of the order should observe strict loyalty and secrecy.
…the dependence of the dynamics of world structure on the interaction of contraries, or pairs of opposites;
…the viewing of the soul as a self-moving number experiencing a form of metempsychosis, or successive reincarnation in different species until its eventual purification (particularly through the intellectual life of the ethically rigorous Pythagoreans);
…understanding ...that all existing objects were fundamentally composed of form and not of material substance.
Further Pythagorean doctrine ... identified the brain as the locus of the soul; and prescribed certain secret cultic practices.