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Organisms and Their Environment. Ecology. Ecology – study of interactions that take place b/t organisms and their environment Abiotic factor – non living parts of an organisms environment (i.e. rocks, air currents)

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Ecology


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    1. Organisms and Their Environment Ecology

    2. Ecology – study of interactions that take place b/t organisms and their environment Abiotic factor – non living parts of an organisms environment (i.e. rocks, air currents) Biotic factor – all living organisms that inhabit an environment (including things that are dead but were once living) Biosphere – portion of Earth that supports living things Vocabulary

    3. Food web – shows all possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community Trophic level – each organism in a food chain representing a feeding step in the passage of energy and materials Mutualism – symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit Commensalism – symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected Vocabulary

    4. Parasitism – symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organsims is harmed Symbiosis – relationship in which 2 organsisms live closely together Biodiversity – variety of life in an area, usually measured by the # of species Niche – all the strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment; how it meets its specific needs for food and shelter; how it survives; where it reproduces Vocabulary

    5. Habitat – place where an organism lives out its life Food chain – simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem Producer – organism that make organic molecules from inorganic molecules; serve as a food source for other organisms (i.e. plants) Vocabulary

    6. Consumer – organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients or obtaining nutrients from inorganic sources (i.e. rabbits, deer, humans) Decomposer – organism that feeds by breaking down organic matter from dead organsims (i.e. bacteria, fungi) vocabulary

    7. Earth – the planet we live on (duh!) • Divided into different parts • Lithosphere – Earth’s crust • Hydrosphere – Earth’s water in all forms • Biosphere – contains all life • Atmosphere – all of Earth’s air • Biosphere overlaps/encompasses some or all of each of the other spheres The Bioshpere

    8. Consists of all living –biotic factors, and non living –abiotic factors • Abiotic factors are necessary to sustain life • Air currents • Temperpature • Moisture • Light • Soil, rocks Biosphere

    9. Affect the environment i.e. amount of rain fall determines the abundance & diversity of life an area can support Whale page 37 Problem-Solving Lab 2.1 ABiotic Factors

    10. Biotic factors affect the abundance and diversity of life in an area as well • Competition among species • Symbiotic relationships Biotic factors

    11. In order from smallest to largest: • Organism  Populations  Community  Ecosystem  Biosphere • Organism: single individual of a species • Population: species of organism that lives in the same place at the same time • Community: all populations living in the same place at the same time • Ecosystem: biotic and abiotic factors in the same place at the same time Organization of the Biosphere (Whale 40)

    12. Each organism has its own habitat • i.e. Birds may live in trees; centipedes live on the ground • Each organism has its own niche • Different species may share habitats, food, shelter • There will be at least one essential resource that will be used in a different way by each organism • Leads to reduced competition for resources • If 2 species use the same resources, eventually one will gain control and the other will die off or migrate Organisms in an ecosystem

    13. Symbiosis - mutualism

    14. Symbiosis - commensalism

    15. Symbiosis - parasitism

    16. How organisms obtain energy: • Producers – make their own • Primary Consumers – only eat producers (herbivores) • Secondary consumers – eat primary consumers (carnivore), sometimes producers as well (omnivores) • Tertiary consumers – eat secondary consumers, sometimes eat producers as well • Decomposers – eat decomposing producers and consumers Energy flow through an ecosystem

    17. Food chain • Follows the flow of energy as it moves through organisms • i.e. Seaweed  perch  shark  sea slug • As food moves through the chain, the amount of energy passed to each level diminishes considerably (Whale 52) Energy flow in an ecosystem

    18. Food web – encompasses all the food chains in an ecosystem (Whale 51-52) Problem Solving Lab 2.2 on Whale 50 Energy flow through an ecosystem

    19. Changes in an ecosystem can affect its biodiversity What would happen if it stopped raining in the Mojave Desert? Or, if the amount of acid in the rain falling in the Sierra Nevada Mts increased dramatically to lethal levels? Whale page 51 Affects on Biodiversity

    20. Uncontrolled population growth of a single species can affect biodiversity • Humans as a species can have a devastating affect on biodiversity • i.e. hunting to extinction the grey wolves in Yellowstone • Non native/alien/invasive/introduced species can affect the biodiversity • Usually have no natural predators so they can flourish in the new area & dominate the resources, leaving little resources for the native species which do have natural predators Affects on biodiversity

    21. Water cycle – precipitation  evaporation / transpiration  condensation • Process recycles water through the environment • Carbon cycle – all life on Earth is based on carbon • They form all biological molecules (protein etc) • Plants use CO2 to make food  consumers exhale CO2 back to the atmosphere for plants to use Cycles in nature

    22. Nitrogen cycle – plants need nitrogen to produce • Plants get nitrogen from soil & turn it into food  consumers eat plants & store nitrogen in their bodies, then release as urine or they die and are decomposed and the nitrogen returns to the soil Cycles in nature

    23. Limiting factors – any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms • i.e. availability of food & water, predators, temperature, climate • Tolerance – the ability of organisms to w/stand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic factors Life w/in communities

    24. Succession – change over time • Primary succession: colonization of barren land by communities of organisms • Takes place where there is no life • i.e. lava fields • Pioneer species – 1st species to take hold, they eventually die, but they change the land so other species can thrive • Climax community – the stable, mature community that undergoes little/no change in species following primary succession Life w/in communities

    25. Secondary succession – sequence of changes that takes place after an existing community is severley disrupted in some way • Compare to primary – primary is barren land w/ no life, secondary is some life but largely devastated • i.e. fire devastated areas, some life will still exist, but most of it will have been wiped out Life w/in communities

    26. Biome – large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community Divided into terrestrial and aquatic Organisms w/in each are adapted to the conditions of that particular biome biomes

    27. Marine/Ocean, divided into zones • Photic zone: portion shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate, photosynthesis can occur • Aphotic zone: deep waters that never receive sunlight, photosynthesis cannot occur Aquatic biomes

    28. Intertidal zone (tide pools) • Close to shore line • Organisms are adapted to periodic exposure to air during low tide times • Types of organisms: crab, mussels, oysters, sea anemones, sea stars • Organisms must be able to w/stand crashing waves Aquatic biomes – photic zones

    29. Tide pools

    30. Neritic Zone • Extends from intertidal zone over the continental shelf • Most productive marine zone • Upwellings carry nutrients from ocean bottom • Species: plankton, numerous fish, sea turtles Photic zones

    31. Neritic Zone – Coral Reefs • Form in tropical neritic areas • Rich in species • Built by coral animals over long periods of time • Constructed by their external skeletons, as animals die, the skeletons acculuate • Species: fish, crustaceans, mollusks, etc Photic zones

    32. Neritic zone

    33. Oceanic Zone • The upper portion of the oceanic zone is photic • The lower portion (deep ocean) is aphotic • Contains fewer species than the other zones, even in the photic zones • Species in upper portion – • Producers: microscopic protists, bacteria, plants, invertebrate plankton • Animals: fish, mammals like whales, large invertebrates Aquatic biomes – photic/aphotic zones

    34. Aphotic zone • Species feed on sinking plankton & dead organisms • Deep ocean – near freezing temps & crushing pressure • Species have slow metabolisms & reduced skeletal systems, large jaws & teeth, expandable stomachs • Species: squid, by thermal vents – clams, crabs, worms Oceanic zone

    35. Oceanic zones

    36. Where freshwater meets sea i.e. bays, mud flats, mangrove swamps, salt marshes Shallow water gets lots of sunlight & rivers deposit lots of minerals Interaction of fresh and salt water causes great variation in temp and salinity Surface is exposed to air during low time Organisms are adapted to frequent change Species: mangrove trees, softshell clams, plankton, snails, shrimp, crab, grasses and trees Aquatic biomes - estuaries

    37. estruaries

    38. Lakes and ponds • Eutrophic lakes – rich in organic matter and vegetation, waters are murky • Oligotrophic lakes – contain little organic matter, water is clearer, bottom usually rocky or sandy • Species – fish, ducks, turtles, snakes, salamanders, frogs Aquatic biomes - freshwater

    39. Rivers and streams • Body of freshwater that flows downward • Organisms are adapted to strong currents • Slow-moving rivers are richer in nutrients & support greater diversity of life, rooted plants • Species: brook trout and other fish Aquatic biomes - freshwater

    40. Freshwater wetlands • Land covered w/ fresh water at least part of each year • Marshes – non woody plants (cattails) • Swamps – woody plants (trees/shrubs) • Bog – sphagnum mosses • Most productive freshwater biomes • Species – birds, fish, mammals, amphibians, invertebrates, reptiles, whooping crane, Florida panther, american crocodile, american alligator • Provide protection for spawning organisms • Filter pollutants out of the water & act as flood control Aquatic biomes - freshwater

    41. Aquatic biomes - freshwater

    42. Temp: -14.8 F to 53.6 F Precipiation: <25 cm Soil: moist, thin topsoil over permafrost; low in nutrients; slightly acidic Vegetation: mosses, lichen, grasses, dwarf woody plants Animals: arctic fox, caribou, ermine, grizzly bear, harlequin duck, musk ox, polar bear, snowy owl Terrestrial biomes - tundra

    43. Tundra

    44. Temp: 14 F to 57.2 F Precipitation: 35-75 cm Soil: low in nutrients; highly acidic Vegetation: coniferous evergreen trees Animals: American black bear, bald eagle, bob cat, Canadian lynx, grey wolf, grizzly bear, long eared owl, red fox, river otter, snowshoe rabbit, wolverine Terrestrial biomes – taiga

    45. taiga

    46. Temp: 42.8 F to 82.4 F Precipitation: 75-125 cm Soil: moist, moderately thick topsoils; moderate nutrient levels Vegetation: broad-leaved deciduous trees and shrubs or evergreen coniferous trees Animals: American bald eagle, American black bear, coyote, duckbilled platypus, eastern chipmunk, European red squirrel, fat dormouse, least weasel, white tailed deer Terrestrial biomes – forests: temperate forest

    47. Temperate forest (deciduous forest)

    48. Temp: 68 F to 93.2 F Precipitation: 200-400 cm Soil: moist, thin topsoil; low in nutrients Vegetation: broad-leaved evergreen trees and shrubs Animals: African forest elephant, Bengal tiger, chimpanzee, common palm civet, dawn bat, golden lion tamarin, harpy eagle, jambu fruit dove, king cobra, kinkajou, Linn’s sloth, orangutan, probiscusmonkey, red shankeddouc Terrestrial biomes – forests: tropical forests

    49. Tropical forests

    50. Temp: 32 F to 77 F Precipitation: 25-75 cm Soil: deep layer of topsoil; very rich in nutrients Vegetation: dense, tall grasses in moist areas; short grasses in drier areas Animals: corsacfox, Mongolian gerbil, saigaantelope, northern lynx, sakerfalcon, American bald eagle, badger, bob cat, bumble bee, prairie dog, swift fox, Geoffrey’s cat, greater rhea Terrestrial biomes – grasslands: temperate grasslands