ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  2. Definition Anatomy- deals with structure of human body parts. Definition: Physiology- Considers the functions of those body parts. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

  3. Types of Anatomy • Gross Anatomy? • The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye such as heart, lungs, and kidneys. • Regional anatomy- all the structures (muscle, bone, etc) in a particular area. • Systemic anatomy- studied system by system • Surface anatomy-study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.

  4. Types of Anatomy • Microscopic Anatomy- study that deals with the structures too small to be seen with the naked eye. • Cytology- • study cells of the body • Histology – • the study of tissue

  5. Types of Anatomy • Developmental anatomy- traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span. • Embryology- • concerns developmental changes that occur before birth

  6. Level of Complexity. • Atom • Molecule • Organelle • Cell • Tissue • Organ • Systems • Organisms • Population • Community • Ecosystem • Biosphere

  7. CHARACTERISTIC OF ANIMAL LIFE • Maintaining Balance • Movement • Responsiveness • Digestion • Metabolism • Excretion • Growth • Reproduction

  8. Requirements of Organisms • Water • Nutrients (Food) • Oxygen • Heat (Temperature) • Pressure

  9. HOMEOSTASIS • Homeostasis- the maintenance of a stable environment. • Most of our metabolic energy is spent on maintaining it • Set Point- 98.6 F (37 C) • A Homeostasis mechanism that regulates humans is in the center of the brain and is called hypothalamus.

  10. Some organisms (single cells)..the outside world/environment supports its requirements. Humans have about 70 Trillion cells, it our internal environment that keeps everything constant. Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis. HOMEOSTASIS

  11. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Regardless of the factor or event being regulated (which is called the variable) all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components.

  12. The Receptor The Receptor • The first component, the receptor, is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes. • It will send information to the second component which is the control center.

  13. The Control Center • The control center, which determines the set point (range at which a variable is to be maintained), analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.

  14. The Effector • The third component is called the effector, it will provide the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus. • The results of the response then feedback to influence the stimulus positively or negatively.

  15. Which is Which??? • The homeostasis concept is very much like the heat pump at your house? Thermometer Heater Thermostat

  16. Which is which? Which is Which??? The Thermometer is the Receptor The Effector is the Heater Control Center is the Thermostat

  17. Temperature, Blood pressure, and glucose levels all contribute to maintaining homeostasis within the body. These are all regulated by a process called.. Negative Feedback- response to return to normal homeostasis. Most body process are controlled in this manner. HOMEOSTASIS

  18. Some processes that cause movement away from the normal state are more rare and are called Positive Feedback. Here are 3 great examples of Positive Feedback: Oxytocin is a hormone that intensifies labor contractions during birth of a baby. They become more frequent and more powerful which then causes more oxytocin. This continues until the baby is born. Blood clotting—chemical present in a clot promote still more clotting. Breast feeding, the more the baby eats and with greater force the mammary glands respond by making more milk. HOMEOSTASIS HOMEOSTASIS.. you have to add this to you r notes



  21. Axial Portion- The head, neck, and trunk Appendicular Portion- upper and lower limbs BODY CAVITIES BODY CAVITIES

  22. Axial-Dorsal BODY CAVITY • The Dorsal cavity lies within the skull and vertebral column and has two subdivisions: the Cranial cavityand the Spinal cavity (Vertebral canal). As the names suggest, the cranial cavity hosts the brain and the spinal cord is found within the spinal cavity.

  23. Axial-Ventral BODY CAVITY • The ventral cavity also has two main subdivisions, the Thoracic Cavity and the Abdominaopelvic (abdominal and pelvic cavity.) • These two cavities have an obvious division separating them; The large, dome shaped Diaphragm muscle that sits below the lungs and above the stomach.

  24. Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY • The Thoracic cavity is divided into right and left, lung containing sides by a medial partition called the Mediastinum, which contains the heart, trachea and esophagus.

  25. Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY • . The lungs are separated from each other and the heart into right and left Pleural cavities. Each cavity is lined by a membrane, the Parietal pleura, which is continuous and covers the lungs proper, forming the Visceral pleura • Parietal layer-separates the lining of the wall from the layer covering the organ visceral layer.

  26. Cavities

  27. Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY • A similar situation exists with the heart, which resides within the Pericardial cavity, which is lined by the Parietal Pericardium, a membrane which is continuous with the Visceral Pericardium, covering the heart.

  28. Abdominopelvic • The abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided in it's own right, although this division is not obvious as it's division with the thoracic cavity. The upper Abdominal cavity is divided from the lower Pelvic cavity by an imaginary line from the pubis up and back to the top of the sacrum.

  29. Abdominal Cavity Abdominal Cavity • The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, spleen and pancreas. The pelvic cavity is a small space encased by the pelvic bones and contains the urinary bladder, the lower end of the colon, and the internal reproductive organs (primarily female).

  30. Abdominal Cavity Abdominal Cavity • The abdominal cavity is lined by a membrane, the Parietal Peritoneal, which is continuous with the organs of the abdominal cavity. This membrane is called the Visceral Peritoneal. The space between these two is the Peritoneal cavity.

  31. Integumentary System Integumentary System

  32. Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. Protect underlying tissue, help regulate temp, sensory receptors, and synthesize certain products. Integumentary System

  33. Bones, ligaments, and cartilage Provides frameworks, protective shield for softer tissue, attachment for muscles, and act together with muscles for movement Tissue within the bones produce blood cells, store inorganic salts.


  35. All muscles Force for body movement, help maintain posture, are the main source of body heat. MUSCULAR SYSTEM


  37. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. Nerve cells send nerve impulses Specialized sensory receptors. Some nerves receive/send impulses Some carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles NERVOUS SYSTEM


  39. Includes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones Some hormones affect certain tissue- (target tissue) Alters metabolism of target tissue ORGANS- Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


  41. Includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood Heart-pump that forces blood through blood vessels. Blood- carries oxygen from lungs and nutrients from digestive organs to all body cells CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  42. Lymphatic System

  43. Includes: lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen. Transports tissue fluid back to bloodstream and carries fatty substances away from digestive organs. Cells are called lymphocytes, which defends the body against infections by removing disease. Lymphatic System

  44. Digestive System

  45. . Digestive System • Includes: Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestine • Breaks down food to similar forms that can pass through cell membranes to be absorbed.

  46. Materials not absorbed are transported back outside the body. Certain digestive organs produced hormones and function as part of the endocrine system. Digestive System

  47. The Air BagsThe Respiratory System

  48. Includes: Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Takes air in and out and exchanges gases between blood and the air. O2 in and CO2 out The Respiratory System

  49. Urinary System Urinary System Urinary System