Anatomy and Physiology Chapter #1. 1.1 Introduction. Early interest in the human body probably developed as people became concerned about injuries and illness . Primitive doctors began to learn how certain herbs and potions affected body functions.
Anatomists continue to discover new anatomical features of the body.
Movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, excretion
Reproduction and growth are NOT synonymous.
5. Respiration- Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods. 6O2 + C6H12O6 = 6CO2 + 6H2O
6. Digestion- breakdown or food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
7. Absorption- is the passage of substances through various body membranes and into body fluids.
8. Circulation- movement of substances from place to place in body fluids.
9. Assimilation- changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms.
10. Excretion- removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.
Metabolism- acquisition and use of energy.
3. Oxygen- releases energy from food materials.
4. Heat- is a product of metabolic reactions and it controls the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body.
5. Pressure- is a force on something. Atmospheric pressure help breathing. Hydrostatic pressure help blood movements.
Shivering is a heating process. When the body needs to conserve heat, blood vessels in the skin surface constrict.
When a person’s body heat rises, the brain’s temperature control center increases the loss of body heat.
In maintaining homeostasis, the feedback to the control center is triggered by changes away from the set point.
Chemicals are made up of smaller structures called atoms and atoms can combine to form molecules.
Organelles are structures within cells that perform specific functions.
In the human body, the most complex level of organization is the organ system.
Tissues are layers or masses that have common functions.1.5 Levels of Organization
Mediastinum separates the cavity into 2 compartments. Left and right
2. Abdominoplevic cavity: abdominal cavity + pelvic cavity
1. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands (hair follicles).
2. Skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilages and ligaments.
3. Muscular system includes the muscles of the body.
4. Nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
5. Endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones, which regulate metabolism.
6. Cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels.
7. Lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen.
8. Digestive system receives foods, breakdown food into usable molecules, and eliminates waste.
9. Respiratory system exchanges gases between the air and blood.
11. Reproductive system produce new organisms.
3. Anterior: Means the same as ventral in humans. Where does it refer to? Front
Ex. the spinal cord is posterior to the heart
5. Medial means towards the midline.
Ex. the ears are lateral to the nose.
7. Proximal also is in reference to another part. It means closer to the point of origin.
8. Distal is the opposite of proximal. It means farther from the point of origin.
9. Superficial is close to the surface.
10. Deep is far from the surface.