Week 6. Relative Autonomy 1923-1939. The Treaty of Versailles ( June 28th 1919).
Relative Autonomy 1923-1939
Supposedto ensure a lasting peace by punishing Germany and setting up a League of Nations to solve diplomatic problems. Instead it left a legacy of political and geographical difficulties which have often been blamed, sometime solely, for starting the WWII.
1927 M Kemal Atatürk The Great Speech
1) Britain and France (sq)
2)Germany andItaly (revisionist)
3) the USSR (swinger)
A territorial dispute in the early 20th century between Turkey and the UK(later Iraq) over the possession of the former Ottoman Vilayet of Mosul.
The new Turkish Republic considered Mosul one of the crucial issues determined in the National Pact.
Britain managed to bring the issue into the international arena, scaling it down to a frontier problem between Turkey and Iraq.
The LoNCouncil appointed an investigative commission that recommended that Iraq should retain Mosul, and Turkey reluctantly assented to the decision by signing the Frontier Treaty with the Iraqi government in 1926.
Iraq agreed to give a 10 % royalty on Mosul's oil deposits to Turkey for 25 years.
In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne had demilitarised the Dardanelles and opened the Straits to unrestricted civilian and military traffic, under the supervision of the International Straits Commission of the League of Nations.
1) Machineryfor collective guarantees were too slow and ineffective
2) No contingency for a general threat of war
3) No provision for Turkey to defend itself.
Australia, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Romania, the Soviet Union, Turkey, the UK and Yugoslavia agreed to attend negotiations at Montreux in Switzerland, which began on 22 June 1936.
ServedTurkish and Soviet interests, enabling Turkey to regain military control of the Straits and assuring Soviet dominance of the Black Sea.
Although it restricted the Soviets' ability to send naval forces into the Mediterranean sea – thereby satisfying British concerns about Soviet intrusion into what was considered a British sphere of influence – it also ensured that outside powers could not exploit the Straits to threaten the SU.