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IAEA Technical Meeting/Workshop “ Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power ” 9-12 February 2010, Vienna, Austria. AECL Perspectives on newcomer NPP owners: lessons from the Cernavoda experience. John Saroudis

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aecl perspectives on newcomer npp owners lessons from the cernavoda experience

IAEA Technical Meeting/Workshop

“Topical Issues on Infrastructure Development: Managing the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power”

9-12 February 2010, Vienna, Austria

AECL Perspectives on newcomer NPP owners: lessons from the Cernavoda experience

John Saroudis

Regional Vice-President

CANDU Reactor Division

  • AECL Profile
  • Vendor Expectations of newcomers to nuclear
  • Some key questions
  • Legal, commercial and regulatory matters
  • Training and Education
  • Industrial and Localisation Aspects
  • The Cernavoda Experience
  • Longer Term Issues
  • Conclusions
atomic energy of canada limited
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
  • Established in 1952 to lead the Canadian nuclear industry.
  • 33 CANDU reactors in-service worldwide
  • Over 5,000 employees
  • CANDU recognized as one of the top 10 major engineering achievements of the past century in Canada.
  • World records in construction and commissioning.
  • Advanced R&D Facilities
aecl s power reactor products
AECL’s Power Reactor Products
  • ACR-1000TM (Advanced CANDU ReactorTM)
  • 1200 MWe class reactor
  • Generation III+ technology
  • Combines experience of CANDU 6 with new CANDU concepts
  • Light water cooling & low enriched fuel
  • Enhanced safety, economics, operability
  • EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6)
  • 740 MWe class
  • Heavy water moderated and cooled, natural uranium fueled
  • Based on the Qinshan project
  • Enhanced to meet current regulatory requirements in Canada and internationally, and the Gen III guidelines
candu a global success

Wolsong, S. Korea

Pickering, Canada

Qinshan III, China

CANDU – A Global Success


Cernavoda 2 units

+ 2 units planned

Quebec, Canada

Gentilly 2 1 unit

South Korea

Wolsong 4 units

Ontario, Canada

Darlington 4 units

Pickering 6 units

Bruce 8 units


Qinshan 2 units


2 CANDU units

15 PHWR units,

3 units under construction

N.Brunswick, Canada

Point Lepreau 1 unit


Embalse 1 unit


KANUPP 1 unit

vendor expectations of npp newcomer countries
Vendor Expectations of NPP newcomer countries
  • Vendors want to deal with an intelligent customer;
  • Realistic expectations and objectives from host country;
  • Clear and practical (credible) process;
  • Transparency and trust;
  • Host country commitment to undertaking long process to develop the necessary infrastructure and human resources required for the successful implementation of an NPP program;
vendor expectations some key questions
Vendor Expectations: some key questions
  • What is the country's legal framework: does it adhere to international agreements?
  • Does the country have the ability to develop the required human resources?
  • Does it have a developed electricity sector from which to draw resources that can be further trained?
  • What is the funding/financing model?
why the subject is pertinent
Why the subject is pertinent
  • 43 countries have expressed interest in building a first NPP;
  • 25 countries are actively considering nuclear power programs;
  • Newcomer Country Perspective: Issues of economic effort, capability of industrial infrastructure, availability of human resources, cultural considerations
  • Nuclear Vendor Perspective: Responding to new NPP acquisition process is a time-consuming and expensive process
what the vendor can do
What the vendor can do
  • Help educate the buyer with help from the IAEA;
  • Undertake joint pre-feasibility studies (reflect some vendor requirements into the process);
  • Make their expectations and requirements known to the newcomer countries;
  • Sell proven technology; this provides a reliable base on which to build in a newcomer country.
candu development a strong history
OFFICIAL USE ONLYCANDU Development: A Strong History



and beyond

900+ MWe Class




Enhanced CANDU 6


Bruce A

Bruce B


Pt Lepreau







600+ MWe Class




Gentilly 2

Wolsong 1

Power (MWe)


Pickering A

Pickering B


Research & Prototype



Douglas Point















legal and commercial aspects
Legal and Commercial Aspects


  • Non-Proliferation legislation;
  • Nuclear Liability legislation;


  • Well-established judicial system;
  • Acceptance of 3rd country legal system (if required);
regulatory aspects
Regulatory Aspects
  • Independent regulatory capability needs to be built up early in the process;
  • Close initial cooperation with vendor countries regulators;
  • Train regulator staff in vendor country(s);
  • Adopt a clear, well-structured licensing system;
training and education
Training and Education


  • Second regulator staff and future operations staff to vendor country institutions/utilities;
  • Develop local labour capabilities in nuclear manufacturing and construction;


  • Existence of high level universities;
  • Institute nuclear engineering courses including Masters level;
  • Educate future pillars of nuclear program in vendor country universities

Industrial and Localisation Aspects

  • Autonomy - self-reliance
    • ability to implement program without undue dependence on others
  • Economic development
    • local companies to benefit from economic activity
  • Scientific & Industrial Development
    • strengthens centres of excellence that support other industries
  • Shorten the supply chain
    • suppliers closer to customers
    • eliminate language barriers
  • Costs
    • reduce costs in a multi-unit new build program

AECL Localization Policy

  • AECL is committed to share technology
  • Four decades of experience
  • CANDU plants exported to six countries & operate in over six languages
  • High localization in most “CANDU” countries
  • AECL has no manufacturing facilities- therefore ready to partner with local companies

The Cernavoda Experience

  • Long history of collaboration starting in the late 1960’s
  • Technology transfer contracts signed in 1978 for CANDU 6 technology;
  • Initially program was too ambitious and not realistic (too much dependence on local capability; program too large in scale);
  • From 1990’s and on the program was scaled back to one more manageable and has resulted in the completion of two very successful CANDU 6 units (Unit 1: in 1996 and Unit 2 in 2007)
short history of canada romania nuclear cooperation
Short history of Canada/Romania nuclear cooperation

Preliminary Phase:

  • Initial discussions started in late 1960’s;
  • Bilateral agreement signed 1971;
  • Joint AECL/ Ministry of Electrical Energy study;
  • Common study AECL/ISPE on feasibility of CANDU in Romania (1975-76);
    • Meeting international safety standards;
    • Economic evaluation;
    • Localisation studies; localised D2O production;
  • Visits to Canadian nuclear sites
short history of canada romania nuclear cooperation con t
Short history of Canada/Romania nuclear cooperation (con’t)

1st Commercial Phase (1978-1989):

  • Commercial contracts signed in 1978:
    • Technology transfer to manufacturing sector;
    • Training in Canada (engineering training at AECL; operations training at Canadian utilities: Pickering and Pt. Lepreau NPPs)

2nd commercial phase (1990’s to present):

  • Greater involvement from vendor;
  • Single unit pace (not 5 units at once);
  • Successful completion of Unit 1 in 1996;
  • Successful completion of Unit 2 in 2007 (greater local participation – local training of operations staff)
cernavoda regulatory cooperation
Cernavoda: Regulatory Cooperation
  • Initially Romania adopted USNRC based licensing process;
  • Then had to be adapted to CANDU approach in collaboration with the AECB (CNSC);
  • CNCAN set up team of about 25 staff who were trained in Canada;
  • In latter years of 2nd commercial phase the CNSC had a full-time representative advising CNCAN during Unit 1 construction;
  • Unit 2 licensed entirely by CNCAN (2003-2007)
cernavoda technology transfer
Cernavoda: Technology Transfer
  • 1978 agreements had significant technology transfer from Canadian to Romanian nuclear manufacturing sector;
  • Capability developed for an ambitious nuclear program during the 1980’s (e.g. for Cernavoda Unit 3 it was envisaged to manufacture calandria vessel in Romania);
  • In reality fell somewhat short of requirements;
  • Long delays in program and limited volume led to failure to fully develop domestic capability and eventually to further erosion (mainly in manufacturing).
longer term issues
Longer Term Issues:
  • Effective nuclear programs need sustained efforts to maintain capabilities;
  • Long interruption in program leads to loss of capability;
  • Competition for trained human resources can seriously hamper domestic programs (manufacturing; construction; operation);
  • Need to adapt objectives to realistic requirements (a single or 2 unit program has different requirements than a multi-unit long-term program)
  • Vendors want to deal with an intelligent and well-prepared customer;
  • The acquisition process is long and complex: newcomer countries must devote the necessary resources (human and monetary) to carry this out;
  • Preparation for introduction of a first NPP is long and demands commitment from the buyer;
  • But, it has been done successfully in several countries;
  • You CANDU it also!