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RFA Convention. Green Options for Trucking. Without Trucks South Africa Stops. Programme Highlights. Agenda. Climate Crisis Facts Green House Gasses Where are we as a Planet Measurement of CO 2 e Emission Scopes Impact on Trucking So What Can Be Done. Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

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Green Options for Trucking

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.


Programme Highlights


  • Climate Crisis Facts
  • Green House Gasses
  • Where are we as a Planet
  • Measurement of CO2e
  • Emission Scopes
  • Impact on Trucking
  • So What Can Be Done

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

climate crisis facts
Climate Crisis Facts

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

green house gasses
Green House Gasses

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

the kyoto protocol
The Kyoto Protocol
  • The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."
  • The Protocol was initially adoptedon 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into forceon 16 February 2005. As of October 2009, 184 states have signed and ratified the protocol.
the ipcc has identified 6 greenhouse gases
The IPCC has identified 6 greenhouse gases

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental bodyfirst established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53

where are we as a planet
Where are we as a planet

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.


We are rapidly reaching a tipping point!

Human Activity  Global Warming

Global Warming  Climate Change

Accelerated warming though secondary impacts & feedback loops

If the weather engine that drives our ecosystems collapses we reach tipping point


We don’t

think we do!




We think

We Do!

Skeptic? – Take a Risk Management Approach!

Take Action?

Do Humans Compound

Climate Change?



Unrecoverable Global

Economic Depression

Global Catastrophes :

PoliticalEnvironmentalEconomicPublic HealthSocial

measurement of co 2 e
Measurement of CO2e

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

co 2 e

What is a carbon footprint –


A carbon footprint is defined as:

  • The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2e).
calculating co 2 e
Calculating CO2e

CO2 Equivalent (CO2e) is the concentration of CO2 that would cause the same level of radioactive forcing as a given type and concentration of greenhouse gas

Values for CH4 and N2O are presented as CO2 equivalents (CO2e) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) factors*, consistent with reporting under the Kyoto Protocol and the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).


Combustion produces emissions

  • CO – carbon monoxide
  • CO2 – carbon dioxide
  • CH4 – methane
  • N2O – nitrous oxide

Petrol Engine

Measured in Kg Equivalent CO2 (CO2e) emitted

per liter of fuel combusted

1 liter of petrol combusted = 2.3 Kg CO2 e

emission scopes
Emission Scopes

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

understanding scope in emissions reporting
Understanding Scope in emissions reporting

WRI (World Resource Institute) reporting guidelines classify business activities that generate emissions according to a “Scope” association as follows:

  • Scope 1 emissions are those directly occurring from sources that are owned or controlled by the business, including on-site stationary combustion of fossil fuels; mobile combustion of fossil fuels by company owned / controlled vehicles and “fugitive” emissions. Fugitive emissions result from intentional or unintentional release of GHG’s (e.g. leakage of HFCs from refrigeration and / or air conditioning equipment)

The World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmental think tank founded in 1982 based in Washington, D.C.

understanding scope in emissions reporting1
Understanding Scope in emissions reporting
  • Scope 2 emissionsare indirectemissions generated in the production of electricity consumed by the business
  • Scope 3 emissionsare all the otherindirectemissions that are generated as a consequence of the activities of the business, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by the company (e.g. commuting, air travel, waste disposal, water usage, etc)
emissions scopes ghg protocol
Emissions Scopes: GHG Protocol

Courtesy of Barloworld Logistics

measure emissions footprint analysis
Measure – Emissions footprint analysis
  • Energy use assessments* – based on energy consumption data (electricity, LPG, Diesel, Petrol)
  • GHG audits** – based on GHG protocol
  • * Scope 1 and 2 emissions factors only
  • ** Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions factors
impact on trucking
Impact on Trucking

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

research report to the road freight association


The National Treasury of the Republic of South Africa has recognized that South Africa, as one of the top twenty CO2emitters in the world, will need to take positive steps to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, whilst still ensuring economic growth, increased employment and poverty reduction. As part of this process the National Treasury released a discussion paper for public comment in December 2010 on the carbon tax option to reduce greenhouse gases.


… This document is a response to the Road Freight Association’s requirement to investigate the impact of carbon taxes on the freight logistics sector and determine some of the potential effects of this on consumers.

…The effect as a percentage of GDP in 2009 terms. At a carbon tax rate of R75 per ton the carbon tax is likely to be in the region of 1,4% of GDP and at a rate of R250 per ton it would comprise approximately 4,6% of GDP.

calculation of applicable carbon tax based on fuel consumption
Calculation of Applicable Carbon Tax Based on Fuel Consumption

Courtesy of Jim Campbell


The two main economic policy instruments available for putting a price on carbon and curbing GHG emissions are carbon taxation and emissions tradingschemes. The carbon tax seeks to reduce emissions through the price mechanism directly, while emissions trading schemes establishes targets for specific levels of emissions through the trade in allowances.

Industry group CO2 emissions and tax based on the various tax scenarios as a percentage of transport cost
so what can be done
So What Can Be Done

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

clean diesel fuel south african availability
“Clean” Diesel Fuel South African Availability
  • ULS grade diesel = 2,3% of total annual diesel sales
  • the cost to the South African oil refining industry to upgrade … , is estimated to be between R20 billion and R40 billion the full cost to be carried by the oil industry without any major returns in adjusted fuel price margins.

Courtesy of Jim Campbell

fuel additives
Fuel Additives
  • An after market product added to fuel claimed to enhance the performance of the fuel and so improve the consumption
  • Which are the solutions that deliver the nett financial benefit???
  • Fuel management solutions are available, the approach is holistic and requires a management focus
alternative fuel and or energy sources
Alternative Fuel and or Energy Sources
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas
  • Diesel/LPG mixtures
  • 100% bio-mass based fuel and Bio diesel mixtures,
  • Pure methane, Compressed natural gas (CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  • Methane /diesel mixtures
  • Hybrid power units, a combination of fossil fuel and electrical power.
  • Pure electrical using on-board electrical storage.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells

Courtesy of Jim Campbell

diesel lpg mixtures
Diesel/LPG mixtures

For an initial installed cost of around R100 000, there will be savings in CO2 emissions of up to 15%, and based on the current price of LPG for automotive use, an anticipated reduction in combined fuel costs of between 25 – 30% compared to an engine fuelled by diesel only.

Courtesy of Jim Campbell

hydrogen fuelled busses
Hydrogen Fuelled Busses

There are a number of busses currently operating in Europe and the US with hydrogen fuel, carried in storage vessels located on the roof of the vehicle in compressed gas form at pressures of up to 34 mega Pascals (5000 psi). As with electrically powered buses and the restricted area of operation, and the space required for the hydrogen storage vessels, this power source is not currently suitable for medium and long distance vehicles.

Courtesy of Jim Campbell

improving transport efficiency
Improving transport efficiency
  • Improved Vehicle Routing
  • Vehicle technology and efficiency
    • vehicles combinations aerodynamics can account for up to 50% of fuel consumption (especially at cruising/trunking speeds)
    • equip the vehicle and trailer/s with fairings to ease the flow of air around the vehicle
  • Performance Based Standards (PBS) Vehicles
    • From a Paper by Paul Nordengen
    • The overall benefit in terms of the environment is to allow greater loads to be carried, in greater safety to other road users, for a given engine capacity and power, with a minimal increase in fuel consumption and without additional damage to the road infrastructure

Courtesy of Jim Campbell

what ever we do we can t do nothing
What ever we do, we can’t do NOTHING

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.

thank you
Thank You

Without Trucks South Africa Stops.