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Organisation of the education system in Romania. Structures of Education and Training Systems . Pre-Primary Education.

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organisation of the education system in romania

Organisation ofthe education system in Romania

Structures of Education and Training Systems

pre primary education
Pre-Primary Education
  • Pre-primary education (also referred to as ''pre-school education'') is a part of the non-compulsory Pretertiary education and can be organised in public and private kindergartens - grădiniţa. According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995), preprimary education is organised for children aged 3-6 in three types of programmes, offered in the same or different kindergartens:
  • normal (4 periods), prolonged (11 periods) and weekly (Monday to Friday) programme.
  • Children are organised in age-level groups: lower (3-4 years old); middle (4-5 years old) and high (5-6 years), high school-preparatory group (5-6/7 years old).
primary education
  • Primary education is a part of the compulsory education and can be organised in public and private schools. According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995), primary education is organised for pupils aged 6 to 10 and includes grades 1-4. A class of any grade in primary education works with one teacher and comprises in average 20 pupils, but no less than 10 and no more than 25.
  • Primary education is equally provided for all children, including the ones with special educational needs either in units of special education or in mainstream education institutions.
lower secondary education gimnaziu
Lower secondary education – Gimnaziu
  • Gimnaziu (grades 5-8) is the first stage of lower secondary education, following the 'elementary education' provided in the first four grades.
  • The education at gimnaziu level can be organised in various types of educational institutions, but most frequently it is organised together with primary education in schools covering grades 1 to 8 (the sequence of compulsory education until 2003) named şcoalagenerală (general schools). Especially in urban areas, there are also schools offering both primary and full secondary education (grades 1 to 12/13), or only secondary education (grades 5 to 12/13).
liceu second phase of lower secondary education
Liceu – Second phase of lower secondary education
  • Liceu (high school) is the educational institution that offers to all pupils who completed gimnaziu and have a completion certificate the possibility to specialise in various theoretical fields and to prepare for the labour market and/or to continue their studies at the subsequent education levels – post-secondary non-tertiary education or tertiary education. High school education is organised in three paths:
  • the general path with two educational profiles: humanities and sciences;
  • the technological path with three educational profiles: technical, services, and exploitation of the natural resources and environment protection;
  • the aptitude-based path with five educational profiles: military, public security, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical.
  • The general path is usually organised in theoretical highis mainly meant to ensure preparation for higher education. schools and

The completion year offers the possibility to attain the necessary education level to participate in upper secondary education and to acquire a higher vocational qualification.

  • Upper secondary education (upper cycle of Liceu) provides general and specialised courses leading to the continuation of studies in postsecondary, or higher education.
  • Post-secondary education at Şcoalăpostliceală prepares students for a higher vocational qualification and should lead to employment.
tertiary education
Tertiary education
  • Higher education is accomplished through educational institutions such as: universities (Universitate), academies (Academie) and postgraduate schools (Şcoală de studiiacademicepostuniversitare).
  • The mission of the higher education institutions is either education and research or only education. Higher education institutions usually include several faculties, university colleges departments, chairs and units for scientific research, design and micro-production.
  • In Romania, universities and other higher education institutions are autonomous and have the right to establish and implement their own development policies, within the general provisions of the in-force legislation.