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Safe Slinging Practices

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Safe Slinging Practices. Types of Slings. Wire Rope Slings Chain Slings Synthetic Web Slings. Ropes, chains, and slings. Primary hazard is structural failure due to: Overloading (“the weakest link”) Deterioration and/or wear Environmental exposure Improper rigging Abuse.

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slide1

Safe Slinging Practices

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slide2

Types of Slings

Wire Rope Slings

Chain Slings

Synthetic Web Slings

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slide3

Ropes, chains, and slings

  • Primary hazard is structural failure due to:
    • Overloading (“the weakest link”)
    • Deterioration and/or wear
    • Environmental exposure
    • Improper rigging
    • Abuse

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slide4

Natural fibre ropes

IS: 1084—1969 Manila Rope

IS: 1321—1970 Sisal Rope

MANILA — Black Yarn

Grade-I SPECIAL QUALITY ALL THE THREE STRANDS

Grade-II STANDARD QUALITY ALL THE TWO STRANDS

Grand-III MERCHANT QUALITY ONE STRAND

SISAL Red or Green YARN in one strand

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slide5

SWL of Fibre ropes

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slide6

Fibre ropes

DANGER

  • Once a Fibre Rope is condemned it should be cut with a knife so as to ensure that it should not be used again.

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slide7

Fibre ropes

  • Causes of Deterioration

Internal wear by Repeated Flexing

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slide8

Synthetic Fibre ropes

  • IS: 4572– 1968 Polyamide (Nylon Filament Rope)
  • IS: 5175– 1969 Poly Propylene Rope
  • IS: 8674– 1978 Polyethylene Rope
  • Advantages
  • Light in Weight
  • Higher Strength
  • Increased Resistance to Repeated Bending, Flexing and Abrasion
  • Resistance to water and
  • Choice of Selection

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slide9

Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings

Components of Wire Rope

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slide10

Left Lay

Right Lay

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slide12

Crushing

Because of loose winding on drum, rope was pulled in between underlying wraps and crushed out of shape.

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slide13

Birdcaging

The sudden release of a load cause birdcaging.Here individual strands open away from each other, displacing the core.

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slide14

Locking of strands

Premature breakage of wires resulted from "locking" of strands, which was caused by insufficient lubrication.

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slide15

Abrasion

Neglect of periodical inspection left this rope in service too long, resulting in considerable abrasion.

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slide16

Kinking

Kink or "dog leg“ was caused by improper handling and/or installation. A kink causes excessive localized or spot abrasion.

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slide17

Reverse bending

Running this rope over one sheave and under another caused fatigue breaks in wires.

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slide18

Pitting

Too much exposure combined with surface wear and loss of lubrication caused corrosion and pitting.

.

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slide19

Wear

Too long in service. Repeated winding

and overwinding of this rope on a drum while it was under heavy stress caused the unusually severe wear.

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slide20

Wire Rope

  • Wire Rope Sling IdentificationRated Load (rated capacity)
    • Load test date
    • Manufacturer’s name
    • Periodic inspection due date
    • Broken wires (10 in one lay or 5 in one strand)
    • Severe corrosion
    • Localized wear
    • Reduction in outer wire
    • Damaged end fittings
    • Distortion, kinking, etc…

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wire rope
Wire rope

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slide23

Wire Rope Slings

single-rope legs

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slide24

Wire Rope Slings

sling with single-rope legs, Torpedo loop-locks and choker hook

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slide25

TWO LEGGED BRIDLE SLINGS

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slide26

THREE LEGGED BRIDLE SLINGS

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slide27

FOUR LEGGED BRIDLE SLINGS

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slide28

Chain and Chain Sling

Parts of Chain Sling

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slide29

Chain and Chain Sling

Single Chain Sling

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slide30

Chain and Chain Sling

Double Chain Sling

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slide31

Chain and Chain Sling

Triple & Quadruple Chain Sling

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slide32

Chain and Chain Sling

Adjustable Chain Sling

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slide33

Chain Sling Identification

  • Chain Size
  • Manufacturers Grade
  • Rated load and angle
  • Reach
  • Number of legs
  • Manufacturers name and trademark
  • Next inspection

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slide34

What should you avoid while using chain slings?

  • impact loading: do not jerk the load when lifting or lowering the sling. This increases the actual stress on the sling.
  • Do not drag chains.
  • Do not splice a chain by inserting a bolt between two links.
  • Do not shorten a chain with knots or by twisting.
  • Do not force a hook over a link.
  • Do not use homemade connections. Use only attachments designed for the chain.
  • Do not heat treat or weld chain links: the lifting capacity will be reduced drastically.

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slide35

Various defects in chain slings

Wear

Cut

Stretched Links

Twist or Bend

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slide36

Periodical inspection

  • Clean sling before inspection.
  • Hang the chain up or stretch the chain out on a level floor in a well-lighted area. Remove all twists. Measure the sling length. Discard if a sling has been stretched.
  • Make a link-by-link inspection and discard if
  • Wear exceeds 15% of a link diameter.
  • Cut,, cracked,, burned, or corrosion pitted
  • Twisted or bent
  • Stretched-- Links tend to get longer

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slide37

Chain Sling Inspection Items

  • Cracks, stretches, or deformed master links, coupling links, chains or other components. 
  • One leg of a double or triple chain sling is longer than the others.  
  • Hooks have been opened more than 15% of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.  
  • Chain size at any point of any link is less than stated in the chart on the next slide, the sling shall be removed.

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slide38

Chain Slings

Only chain slings purchased from the manufacturer are allowed.No homemade slings allowed!!

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slide39

Special Precautions

  • It is important to realize that the capacity of a sling decreasesas the angle at which it is used to lift increases.

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slide40

Rigging Devices

  • Shackles
  • Hooks
  • Wire Rope Clips
  • Wedge Sockets
  • Eyebolts
  • Spreader Beams
  • Slings

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slide41

Shackles

Recommended Not Recommended Recommended

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slide42

Proper Use of Shackles

Never replace a shackle pin with a bolt

The load will bend the bolt

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slide43

Avoid eccentric loads

Bad Good

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slide44

Proper chocking of shackles.

Bad Good

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slide45

Shackle Inspection

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slide46

Hooks

  • Manufacturers’ identification.
  • Never weld on hooks.
  • Working safety latch.

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slide48

Wire Rope Clips

  • The most common use of wire rope clips on cranes is at wedge and socket-end fittings.
  • The clip does not provide strength to the wedge and socket connection.
  • It is there to prevent the wedge from accidentally being released.

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slide49

Installing Wire Rope Clips

Installed properly as to number, direction, spacing and torque.

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slide50

Wedge Sockets

  • Most common method of terminating ropes on cranes.
  • All parts must match in size.
  • Measure rope diameter to ensure proper size.

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slide51

Wedge Socket - Correct Rope Installation

  • Live end of the rope, the straight side of the socket and the pinhole all line up.

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slide52

WINDING WIRE ROPE

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slide53

Rigging

Basic Rules of Rigging

  • Know the Weight
  • Know the Capacity

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slide54

HITCHES

STRAIGHT PULL

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slide55

HITCHES

CHOCKER HITCH

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slide56

HITCHES

BASKET HITCH

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slide57

Marked with the capacity and proof tested to 125 percent of that capacity.

  • Load should not be left suspended or unattended

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slide58

How Horizontal Angle Affects Sling Capacity

Note:A good operating practice is to keep sling angles from going below 60 degrees

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slide59

Sling Angle Factor

Sling Angle Factor = L/H Where: L = Length of the sling.

H = Height of the connection point from the horizontal plane of the load.

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slide60

Sling Angles

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hook load increases on brake application during lowering
Hook load increases on brake application during lowering

Avoid rapid acceeration or deceleration of load

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slide65

Hand Signals

An illustration of the signals must be posted at the job site

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sheave grooves may become grooved if cable s nominal diameter is reduced indicating wear
Sheave grooves may become grooved if cable’s nominal diameter is reduced, indicating wear.

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slide70

Safe Usage Practices

  • Slings should be stored off the floor and hung on racks whenever possible in a clean, dry environment.
  • Never drag slings across the floor. 

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slide71

Safe Usage Practices (Cont.)

  • Never shock load slings.
  • Keep loads balanced to prevent overloading slings.
  • Always lift loads straight up.
  • Never rest a load on a sling, or pinch a sling between the load and the floor.
  • A sling should not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.
  • Make sure the hook is always over the center of gravity of the load before lifting it.
  • Do not apply a load to a twisted, knotted or kinked chain.
  • Do not force or hammer hooks or chains into position.

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slide72

Safe Usage Practices (Cont.)

  • Hands and Fingers shall not be placed between the sling and the load while the sling is being tightened around the load.
  • Clean chains regularly as dirt and grit can cause excessive wear at the link bearing points.
  • Never shorten a sling with knots, bolts or other makeshift devices.
  • Protect the chain’s surface from contact with sharp corners, which can cause permanent damage through gouging or abnormal stress and wear.

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slide73

Ropes, chains, and slings

  • Factors affecting load capacity
    • Hitch type
    • Leg angle from vertical
  • Other issues
    • Hook deformation (maximum 10° twist, 15% throat opening)
    • Rope wear
      • Consider replacement if more than 12 randomly distributed broken wires within a single strand within a single lay (ANSI B30.2)
    • Chain deformation

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slide74

Ropes, chains, and slings

  • Selected controls
    • Proper selection of rigging materials
    • Proper use
    • Keeping loads within limits
    • Regular inspection/testing of rigging components
    • Training of riggers
  • Other issues
    • Hook retainers
    • Load capacity charts for field use

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slide75

Review

  • Select the right sling for the job.
  • Inspect slings prior to use, removing from service any in question.
  • Remember the effect of sling angles on load capacities.
  • Properly store slings when finished to avoid damage.

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conclude
Conclude
  • Associates in the direction of travel should be warned to move and remain clear of a lifted load at all times.
  • Loads should not be suspended over personnel below.
  • Under no circumstances may anyone ride the hook or load.
  • Directional movement should be made smoothly and deliberately. Avoid rapid movements in any direction.

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slide77

Conclude

  • Locate the hoist directly above the lifting point of the load before lifting.
  • Lower loads directly below the hoist.
  • Keep hoisting ropes vertical. Do not pull or push the load.
  • Maintain two full wraps of cable on the hoisting drum.
  • Never pull a hoist by the pendant cable

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slide78

Thank you

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