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CHAPTER 6-1. Bone connective tissue. “Objectives ”. Functions of the skeletal system Classification of bones based on shape General features of bone Bone cells and matrix of bone Compact and spongy bone Bone marrows Bone development Overview of bone growth and remodeling.

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    1. CHAPTER 6-1 Bone connective tissue

    2. “Objectives ” Functions of the skeletal system Classification of bones based on shape General features of bone Bone cells and matrix of bone Compact and spongy bone Bone marrows Bone development Overview of bone growth and remodeling

    3. Bone Skeletal system Defined:Includes all of thebones of the human body (total of 206), and their associated cartilages and joints. Functions: • Support – supporting framework for body • Protection – protects vital organs (brain and thoracic cavity) • Movement / levers- allows movement and flexion as well as levers for different movements • Mineral storage- calcium and phosphate • Hematopoiesis- principal site for blood cell formation in red marrow of flat bones (e.g. sacrum, sternum, etc.) • Electrolyte balance of calcium and phosphorus • Acid/Base balance buffers the blood calcium phosphate • Detoxification by absorbing heavy minerals

    4. Bone • Two types: Compact and Spongy • Compactbone consists of osteons (Haversian systems) osteocytes in lacunae and lamellae. • Spongy bone is characterized by trabeculae filled with red bone marrow

    5. Compact Bone

    6. Bone • Two types: a) Compact b) Spongy

    7. Classification based on the “shape” • Long bones – bones that are longer than they are wide Ex. Femur, tibia, fibula, ulna and humerus • Short bones – bones that are shaped like a cube; there is also a special class of short bones called sesamoid bones. Ex. Tarsal, carpal, and patella. • Flat bones – bones that are thin and flat. Ex.Scapula, skull, ribs, and sternum. • Irregular bones – bones that do not fit in any of the prior categories because they have irregular shapes. Ex. Vertebrae and hip bones.

    8. Classification based on shapes

    9. Bone markings and landmarks

    10. Bone markings and landmarks

    11. “GROSS” structure of a typical bone • Articular cartilage: Consists of Hyaline cartilage covering the end of the bone surface where it articulates with another bone, (e.g. femur and tibia, humerus and scapula). Fibrocartilage makes up the menisci of the knee joints. • Epiphyses: The end of the bone. One at each end of long bones. • Epiphyseal line: Remnant of the cartilaginous “growth plate” or epiphyseal plate.

    12. Typical bone structure

    13. Bone structure Periosteum: Tough outer connective tissue covering on bone. Consists of 2 layers; outside is dense irregular CT and deeper layer lined with osteoblast and osteoclast cells. It is richly supplied by blood vessels and nerves and secured to bone by Sharpey’s fibers. Endosteum: connective tissue covering on inside of bone cavities. Is osteogenic in that it contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    14. Typical bone structure

    15. Bone structure continued Diaphysis: The shaft of the bone between the two epiphyses. Contains the medullary cavity and is filled with yellow marrow in adults. Sharpey’s fibers: Bundles of collagenous fibers that tightly attach the periosteum to bony matrix.

    16. Types of Bones cells Bone is formed and metabolized by specific cells and is in constant state of remodeling. • Osteoclasts: Bone destroying cells “C” means chewing • Osteoblasts: Bone generating cells “B” means building 3. Osteocytes: Mature bone cells, spider shaped and maintain bone tissue

    17. Bone Cells

    18. Bone Cells

    19. Bone matrix • The matrix of bone is made up of organic and inorganic matter. • The organic portion is of collagen fibers and various proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins. • The inorganic portion is calcium phosphate salts “hydroxyapetite” and calcium carbonate • The combination of these makes for a bone that is very strong and yet flexible.

    20. Chemical Composition of Bone • In addition to bone cells, the majority of compact and spongy bone is composed of inorganic molecules. • These molecules are called hydroxyapatitie and are made of calcium and phosphate. • The combination of these form a cement like material that gives bone its hardness and strength. In combination with collagen fibers that form the matrix of bones and allows for elasticity and flexibility.

    21. Compact bone terms Osteon/Haversian System: structural unit of compact bone. Oriented parallel to shaft and forming a group of hollow tubes through which an artery, vein and nerve pass into and through bone. Lacunae: small cavities (halo’s) containing osteocyte Osteocyte: true bone cell, spider shaped and found in lacunae at the junctions of the lamellae Lamellae: layers of the collagen fiber matrix with each layer going in opposite direction to the adjacent layer.

    22. Compact bone terms Lamellae may be concentric (forming rings like a tree) or circumferential (encircling the entire bone structure). Canaliculi:Hair like canals that connect each lacunae and in turn connect to the Central canal. Remove wastes and bring nutrients into osteocytes Volkman’s canal/perforating canal:Canals running perpendicular to the Haversian canals, but connecting to them. They bring in the artery, vein and nerves to the bone structure.

    23. Compact bone structure

    24. Compact bone structure

    25. Spongy Bone • Spongy bone composes the inner portion of the bone lining the marrow cavity. It has a honeycomb appearance of trabeculae and spicules. Although it looks poorly organized it is designed to withstand the specific stresses put on each bone because of their trabeculae. • Trabeculaeare tiny bone struts or plates that form very strong support structure for the spongy bones. They are irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes, but contain no osteons per se as it receives it nutrients from the marrow tissue.

    26. Spongy bone histology

    27. Flat bone structure

    28. Bone marrow • Yellow marrow is found in medullary cavity of long bones and is not hematopoietic in adults. Yellow marrow replaces red marrow as we mature and is made up mainly of fat. • Red marrow is found in the axial skeleton and girdles and in the epiphyses of the femur and humerus and is very active hematopoietically.