Chapter 6 Section 1 The Phoenicians
Vocabulary • Canaan – Bridge that connected Egypt and Mesopotamia in ancient times • Canaanites – people that lived in Canaan • Phoenicians – a small group of Canaanites that lived in the northern part of Canaan
Philistines – a small group of Canaanites that lived in Southern Canaan • Treaties – agreements between states or countries • Holy of Holies – most sacred chamber in a Phoenician Temple • Urns – decorative vases used to hold the ashes of the dead • Colonies – permanent settlements in a land ruled by a foreign country
Carthage – Phoenician Colony on the north coast of Africa, located where present day Tunisia is
1. Where does the most of what we know about the Canaanites come from? • Most of the info about these groups comes from the Bible, other ancient writings, and the ruins of their cities and ships
2. Why did the Phoenicians turn to the sea to make a living? • The land wasn’t rich enough to grow all the food needed for the people in Canaan
4. What did the Phoenicians use to plot the courses of their journeys? • Used the stars and sun to navigate the open seas
5. What area do archaeologists believe the Phoenicians the first to explore? • The Americas
6. How did the Phoenicians remain free from the larger surrounding countries? • They set up treaties with the surrounding countries
7. What art form did the Phoenicians discover? How did the spread the knowledge of that art form spread? • Glassblowing • Knowledge of the art spread with their trade
8. Describe the political set up of Phoenicia. • The cities states were ruled by powerful priest-kings in the beginning • As time went on the priest-kings were forced to share power with a council of other high standing citizens
9. How did the Phoenicians get their name? • Phoenician means “of purple merchant” • Their name comes from a legend involving a god named Melqart - Melqart was walking with his girlfriend Tyrus on the beach. When their dog found a shellfish called a murex. The dog bit down on the fish and it turned its mouth purple. Tyrus refused to marry Melqart until she could have a dress of that color. Melqart gave her the gown and started the dye-making trade in Phoenicia.
10. Describe the Phoenician Religion. • Polytheistic • most gods were based in nature - original worship was outdoors under trees and on hills, later developed temples • Most sacred room holy of holies
11. Summarize the legend of how Carthage came to be settled. • This origins of Carthage are explained in the legend of Dido - Dido was a Phoenician Princess who ruled over the city of Tyre. Her brother became jealous, murdered her husband, and took over Tyre. Dido escaped and she and her followers fled to Carthage along the northern coast of Africa. Their new city became one of the most prosperous Phoenician Ports.
12. What was the most important idea spread by the Phoenicians? • Phoenician Alphabet • simplified Egyptian Alphabet to keep track of trade - consists of 22 symbols used to make words - basis for Greek, Roman, English, and many other alphabets