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Denver Public Schools. Inclusive Physical Education Workshop David Martinez, M.A., CAPE, CDSS Amy aenchbacher, ed.s ., cape, CDSS. Physical education.

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denver public schools

Denver Public Schools

Inclusive Physical Education Workshop

David Martinez, M.A., CAPE, CDSS

Amy aenchbacher, ed.s., cape, CDSS

physical education
Physical education

Physical education is the foundation of a comprehensive school physical activity program. It is an academic subject that uses a planned, sequential program of curricula and instruction, based on state and/or national physical education standards, which results in all students, including those with disabilities, developing the knowledge, skills, and confidence needed to adopt and maintain a physically activity lifestyle.

adapted physical education
Adapted physical education

Adapted physical education (APE) is physical education which may be adapted or modified to address the individualized needs of children and youth who have gross motor developmental delays.

For all practical purposes, Adapted Physical Education IS developmentally appropriate physical education at its finest. It involves differentiating instruction so the physical activity is as appropriate for the person with a disability as it is for a person without a disability. The emphasis of adapted physical education is to facilitate participation of students with disabilities with typically developing peers in age-appropriate activities.

public law 108 446 the individuals with disabilities education act idea
Public Law 108-446The Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA)
  • States that physical education is a required service for children and youth between the ages of 3-21 who qualify for special education services because of a specific disability or developmental delay.
  • General.

(1) As used in this part, the term special education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including-

(i) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and

(ii) Instruction in physical education.

because of idea
Because of IDEA…
  • Physical Education is a DIRECT service.
  • Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy and Recreation Therapy are Related services (provided to the child with disabilities only if he/she needs them to benefit from instruction).
  • Related Services(therapies) cannot be substituted for physical education/adapted physical education.
section 504 of the rehabilitation act
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
  • “No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States, shall, solely by reason of his or her disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal assistance…” [29 U.S.C. §794(a), 34 C.F.R. §104.4(a)].
  • School systems must make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities who wish to participate in extracurricular, intramural, or interscholastic sports programs.
  • WE cannot discriminate based on disability
section 504 of the rehabilitation act1
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

According to Winnick (2005), an important

objective of Section 504 is to insure that school based

programs are equally effective. “To be equally effective, a

program must offer individuals with disabilities equal

opportunity to attain the same results, and gain the same

benefits, or reach the same levels of achievement

as peers without disabilities (pg. 16).”

public law 101 336
Public Law 101-336

The ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability.

ADA Requires accessibility in

physical education facilities.

recent events in washington dc
Recent EVENTS in Washington DC

Section 504



Nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. “The congressional watchdog," The GAO reports on how well government programs and policies are meeting their objectives

what the gao found
What the gao found


Section 504

students with disabilities participate in athletics at consistently lower rates than students without disabilities.

  • Schools provide students with and without disabilities similar opportunities to participate in PE but face challenges when serving students with disabilities.
  • teacher preparation and budget constraintsare key challenges to serving students with disabilities in general PE classes.
  • general PE teachers need more training opportunities
  • resources for training are not always available.
actions taken by the office for civil rights
Actions taken by theoffice for civil rights

OCR makes it clear that schools may not exclude students who have a disability from trying out and playing on a team.

Schools don’t have to change the essential rules of the game, and they don’t have to do anything that would provide a student with a disability an unfair competitive advantage. But they do need to make reasonable modifications (such as using a laser instead of a starter pistol to start a race so a deaf runner can compete) to ensure that students with disabilities get the very same opportunity to play as everyone else.

Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education

cherokee county school district adapted physical education
Cherokee county school districtadapted Physical education
  • Direct Instruction
  • Collaboration
  • Consultation
a child s view of sensory processing
A child’s view of sensory processing

how do we teach all children
How do we teach all children?

What do you do?

Where do we even start?

I don’t know what he/she can do?

I have students from one end of the continuum to the other!

I just feel as if I have no idea what to do next!

inclusion is
Inclusion is…


“ Isn’t our job to teach ALL kids?”

Nancy Klein, Anchorage City Schools

Elementary PE Specialist

belief statements about children
Belief statements about children
  • All children have the capacity to learn.
  • Assessment drives the educational decisions.
  • (what CAN the student do?)
  • Teachers must be willing to learn, adapt and change in order to meet the needs of all children.
  • ~Tim Davis, Ph.D., CAPE, APENS Chair
what if
What if...
  • …a student with disability never masters a skill?
  • …a student with disability never learns a skill that is functional, generalizable, or meaningful?
  • …a student with disability graduates from high school and is unable to participate in a lifetime-recreational-fitness activity?
what if1
What if …

our philosophy was based on

what the student CAN DO –

not what the student


Courtesy Richard Klein:


Understanding Unique Differences




ecological task analysis
Ecological task analysis

Analyzing all the variables that effect learning will enhance the discovery of adaptations that will maximize the possibility of success.

-Claudine Sherrill





The attitude of the teacher is often the greatest barrier to the success of a child with disability.-tim Davis, Ph.D., APENS chair

teaching strategies that work
Teaching Strategies – That Work!
  • Teaching Styles
    • Use the continuum - command to guided discovery
  • Class Structure
    • Small groups - Large groups - Peer tutors - Paraeducators
  • Delivery of Instruction
    • Verbal - Model/Demonstrate - Physically Assist
    • Order of Learning - Whole vs Part
  • Class Management
    • Start/Stop Signals - Time - Duration
    • Feedback!
teaching strategies that work continued
Teaching Strategies – That Work - Continued!
  • Environment
    • Indoor vs Outdoor - Lighting - Surface
    • Boundaries - Environmental Cues (e.g. Cones)
  • Class Routine
    • Expectations - Routine Warm-ups - Attendance
    • Impact of change in expectation/routine
  • Game Complexity and Difficulty
    • Change in game purpose and structure

Davis, T.D. (2003). Why Become a CAPE? Palaestra, 19, 4-5.

Davis, T.D. (2013). SimplexityGames: Strategies for Addressing Children with Disabilities in Physical Education. Presentation given during the MAHPERD Annual Convention. Lansing, MI.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Public Law 108-446. 118 Stat. 2647 et seq. (2004).

PE Central (2009).

Sherrill, C. (2004). Adapted Physical Activity, Recreation, and Sport: Crossdisciplinary and Lifespan. McGraw-Hill Higher Education

U. S. Department of Education (2007). Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Retrieved November 20, 2013 from:

U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 2004. Vol. 70, Number 118, 34 CFR, § 300. Washington, DC: Author.

Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport (4th ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.