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2010 Western State Highway Equipment Managers Association. 2010 WSHEMA Meeting. Allison Optimization What does optimization mean to Allison? Components of Allison Optimization Questions & Answers. What Does Optimized Mean to Allison?.

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2010 wshema meeting
2010 WSHEMA Meeting

Allison Optimization

What does optimization mean to Allison?

Components of Allison Optimization

Questions & Answers

what does optimized mean to allison
What Does Optimized Mean to Allison?

Delivering the best features aligned with a “known” duty cycle to attract new customers by delivering unsurpassed:

Productivity

acceleration

average speed

body utilization (I/O options)

Uptime

Driveline Protection

Drivability

Safety

Fuel Efficiency

Full power shifts and technology improvements (RELS, LBSS, Auto-Neutral, etc.)

Delivering the most value at the best price!

components of allison optimized as per iscaan
Components of Allison Optimized(As per iSCAAN)

Shift Energy Management (SEM)

Load Based Shift Schedule (LBSS)

Recommended Shift Schedules

Auto Neutral on Park Brake Apply

Reduced Engine Load at Stop (RELS)

Prognostics

shift energy management low range torque protection sem lrtp
Shift Energy Management/Low Range Torque Protection (SEM/LRTP)

What does it do?

Provides better engine/transmission integration for a more optimized driveline system

How does it work?

Uses high speed communication between engine and transmission

Momentarily reduces engine torque during the shift

What are the benefits?

Reduced stress on driveline components

Reduced clutch energy

Allows higher engine torque ratings

The building block for other optimized features

load based shift scheduling lbss
Load-Based Shift Scheduling (LBSS)

What does it do?

Automatically selects between Economy and Performance shift schedules based on the vehicle’s actual payload and the grade on which it is operating

How does it work?

Uses advanced estimation technology to calculate real-time vehicle load and operating grade

Automatically selects the appropriate shift schedule

What are the benefits?

Maximizes fuel efficiency without sacrificing productivity

Doesn’t rely on driver to select the best shift schedule

Frees up Mode button on 3000/4000 Series shifter

Eliminates need for OEM or customer installed switch

lbss benefits
LBSS – Benefits
  • Fuel economy impact
    • 2% to 5% based on preliminary on-road test results
    • Coupled with 110+ shift schedules to choose from, LBSS maintains the traditional Allison productivity benefit
  • LBSS will allow short shifting when productivity will not be impacted (i.e. light load or downhill acceleration)
  • Productivity advantage and fuel savings
auto neutral on park brake
Auto-neutral on Park Brake

What does it do?

Automatically selects neutral range on the transmission when the park brake is applied

How does it work?

Detects hard-wire or J-1939 message that is active when park brake is applied

Automatically shifts the transmission to neutral

What are the benefits?

Ensures transmission is always in neutral when park brake is applied

Maximizes fuel efficiency

Enhances safety

Improves productivity

park brake auto neutral benefits
Park Brake Auto-Neutral – Benefits
  • Simulations generally predict 1-3% FE savings dependent upon duty cycle
  • If a driver is already going to Neutral when park brake applied, this function would have no fuel benefit
  • Safety and productivity benefit
reduced engine load at stop rels
Reduced Engine Load at Stop (RELS)

Optimized fuel efficiency.

reduced engine load at stop rels summary
Reduced Engine Load at Stop (RELS) – Summary
  • Load on the engine is reduced when vehicle is stopped, therefore reducing fuel consumption
  • Useful for city traffic; frequent stops with engine idling at traffic lights
  • At a stop in drive, engine must provide fuel to overcome resistance of stalled torque converter
    • Engine torque absorbed by torque converter
prognostics
Prognostics

What does it do?

Alerts the operator when it’s time to change the transmission fluid or filter, or if other transmission service is necessary

How does it work?

Oil Life Monitor – Indicates when transmission oil is nearing the end of its useful life

Filter Life Monitor – Indicates when the filter is nearing the end of its useful life

Trans Health Monitor – Indicates when the transmission clutches require maintenance

What are the benefits?

Maximum fluid and filter life

Scheduled maintenance

Reduced maintenance costs

startability and ratio coverage
Startability and Ratio Coverage
  • Many new ‘concerns’ from the field about ratio coverage
  • Seemingly, Allison can not match the startability of a manual or AMT equipped truck without it
  • These same folks are in awe of our performance
    • They do not understand why we get up The Hill
key benefits of an allison automatic
Key Benefits of an Allison Automatic
  • Torque converter is the big Allison differentiator
  • Together with overdrives, it enables
    • Fast gearing at highway speeds (for Fuel Economy)
    • Superior startability at launch
  • Coupled with Allison’s powershifting, it enables
    • Better vehicle utilization (i.e., higher average mph)
    • Better Fuel Efficiency and Fuel Economy
1st gear ratio vs ratio coverage
1st Gear Ratio vs. Ratio Coverage
  • When talking startability and transmissions, some only want to look at 1st gear ratio
  • However, we should always talk about ratio coverage
axle ratio
Axle Ratio
  • Correct axle spec has far more impact on fuel economy than any other calibration or feature
  • Terminology review
    • Shallower / higher ratio / faster / numerically lower are equivalent
    • Deeper / lower ratio / slower / numerically higher are equivalent
systems are equivalent

Both systems have the same OAR in 1st and the same OAR in top gear, so the vehicle systems are equivalent

Systems Are Equivalent

Transmission Ratios

Rear Axle Ratio

Overall Reduction

Diesel

Engine

1st = 10.00

Top = 1.00

4.00

1st = 10.00

x

4.00

=

40.00

x

Top = 1.00

=

4.00

4.00

1st = 8.00

x

5.00

=

40.00

x

Top = 0.80

=

5.00

4.00

Diesel

Engine

1st = 8.00

Top = 0.80

5.00

common factor ratio coverage

Ratio coverage = 1st gear ratio / top gear ratio

Common Factor – Ratio Coverage

Transmission Ratios

Rear Axle Ratio

Overall Reduction

Diesel

Engine

1st = 10.00

Top = 1.00

4.00

Coverage = 10.00

1.00

1st = 10.00

x

4.00

=

40.00

= 10.00

x

Top = 1.00

=

4.00

4.00

1st = 8.00

x

5.00

=

40.00

Coverage = 8.00

0.80

= 10.00

x

Top = 0.80

=

5.00

4.00

Diesel

Engine

1st = 8.00

Top = 0.80

5.00

startability
Startability
  • Focus on ratio coverage
  • Do not allow someone to only look at 1st gear ratio
  • Allison has overdrives
    • This gives us a great advantage in ratio coverage

1st gear ratio

Top gear ratio

Ratio Coverage =

startability calculate ratio coverage
Startability – Calculate Ratio Coverage

Manual / AMT

Input Splitter

Main

Gearbox

Range

Pack

Clutch

1.0

L = 1.00

H = 0.85

L = 3.25

….

4 = 0.86

L = 3.78

H = 1.00

TE = Engine Torque

Tout = Output Torque

Ratio Coverage = 1.0 x 1.17 x 3.77 x 3.78 = 16.70

So it looks as if the manual / AMT does have an advantage!

Ratio Coverage = 2.0 x 5.48 = 10.96

Allison 4000 HS

TC

Main

Gearbox

TE = Engine Torque

Tout = Output Torque

2.0

(avg)

1 = 3.51

6 = 0.64

startability calculate ratio coverage1
Startability – Calculate Ratio Coverage

Manual / AMT

Input Splitter

Main

Gearbox

Range

Pack

Clutch

1.0

L = 1.00

H = 0.85

L = 3.25

….

4 = 0.86

L = 3.78

H = 1.00

TE = Engine Torque

Tout = Output Torque

Ratio Coverage = 1.0 x 1.17 x 3.77 x 3.78 = 16.70

…but, both trucks (system level) are not set up the same!

Ratio Coverage = 2.0 x 5.48 = 10.96

Allison 4000 HS

TC

Main

Gearbox

TE = Engine Torque

Tout = Output Torque

2.0

(avg)

1 = 3.51

6 = 0.64

startability determine the axle

Gear both to have identical cruise speeds (same OAR in top range)

The AMT System (assume a 500 rev/mi tire & 1400 erpm):

Startability – Determine the Axle

Rear Axle Ratio

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

RC = 16.70

Top = 0.73

3.83

  • Thus, the equivalent Allison 4000 HS (same specs):

Rear Axle Ratio

Allison 4000 HS

Diesel

Engine

RC = 10.96

Top = 0.64

4.38

startability system defined

Now that our system is defined, let’s find the 1st range OAR

Startability – System Defined

Rear Axle Ratio

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

1st Range OAR = 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 46.68

It looks again that the manual / AMT has an advantage!

1st Range OAR = 2.0 x 3.51 x 4.38 = 30.75

Rear Axle Ratio

Allison 4000 HS

Diesel

Engine

TC

RC = 10.96

1st = 3.51

4.38

2.0

(avg)

startability system defined1

Now that our system is defined, let’s find the 1st range OAR

Startability – System Defined

Rear Axle Ratio

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

1st Range OAR = 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 46.68

…but, we have neglected Allison’s key feature!

1st Range OAR = 2.0 x 3.51 x 4.38 = 30.75

Rear Axle Ratio

Allison 4000 HS

Diesel

Engine

TC

RC = 10.96

1st = 3.51

4.38

2.0

(avg)

startability1
Startability
  • The key difference is the Torque Converter
  • Allison torque converter, depending on model choice (STR) and torque rating, will stall in the range of 1400-1700 erpm
    • Engine will reach peak torque to launch
startability2
Startability
  • Recommendations for a manual or AMT
    • Eaton: “The correct gear will allow you to start with your foot off of the throttle”
    • Caterpillar: “No throttle start”
    • Motor Truck Engineering Handbook: “Launch with engine at 800 rpm max”
startability engagement torque
Startability – Engagement Torque
  • All diesel engines have a clutch ‘Engagement Torque’ for manual transmission equipped analysis
  • AMTs launch in this same range of engine speed
  • These values tend NOT to be openly obvious when scanning a data sheet
    • Most EOEMs publish these values, and they are typically in the range of 650-800 erpm
startability torque converter
Startability – Torque Converter
  • At launch, an Allison equipped truck can take advantage of higher torque
  • AMT/manual-equipped trucks have to overcome:
    • Turbo lag at launch (and every range change)
    • Disadvantage of lower starting torque
  • In our simple analysis, it would follow that the engine torque at launch with the Allison is much higher
startability wheel torque

Determine Wheel Torque (TW):

Startability – Wheel Torque

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

TE

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

TW, AMT =850 lb-ft x 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 39680 lb-ft

5% Higher !!

TW, Allison= 1350 lb-ft x2.0 x 3.51 x 4.38 = 41510 lb-ft

Allison 4000 HS

Diesel

Engine

TE

TC

RC = 10.96

1st = 3.51

4.38

2.0

(avg)

startability additional thoughts
Startability – Additional Thoughts
  • Simple example presented with low engine rating and with close ratio transmission for emphasis
    • What if we go to a higher engine rating?
    • What about vocational competition?
  • The Allison lead just keeps growing
startability engine rating
Startability – Engine Rating
  • Starting torque in a diesel engine family tends not to increase with increased torque rating
  • Allison Automatics can take advantage of higher torque rating at launch
higher rating with higher rating

Determine Wheel Torque (TW):

Higher Rating with Higher Rating

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

TE

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

TW, AMT =850 lb-ft x 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 39680 lb-ft

28% Higher !!

TW, Allison= 1650 lb-ft x2.0 x 3.51 x 4.38 = 50730 lb-ft

Allison 4000 HS

Diesel

Engine

TE

TC

RC = 10.96

1st = 3.51

4.38

2.0

(avg)

higher rating with wide ratio trans

Determine Wheel Torque (TW):

Higher Rating with Wide Ratio Trans

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

TE

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

TW, AMT =850 lb-ft x 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 39680 lb-ft

71% Higher !!

TW, Allison= 1650 lb-ft x2.0 x 4.70 x 4.38 = 67930 lb-ft

Allison 4500 RDS

Diesel

Engine

TE

TC

RC = 14.03

1st = 4.70

4.38

2.0

(avg)

slide39

12-Speed AMTFull Throttle Acceleration

2610

Driver

Demand Torque

Net Engine Torque

Avg. Torque 1354

356

566

Engine Speed

536

296

1.5s Decel

1s Shift Time

40

MPH

OutputSpeed

slide40

Allison Wide Ratio 4000Full Throttle Acceleration

2233

Driver Demand Torque

Net Engine Torque

Avg. Torque 2020

368

Engine Speed

1500

No Decel!

0.5s Shift Time

40

MPH

OutputSpeed

performance when moving
Performance When Moving
  • This power interrupt also requires the engine to re-accelerate very quickly once the next range is attained
  • Let’s consider an example of identical equipped trucks (engine rating, ratio coverage, etc.) EXCEPT for the transmissions
actual situation focus on first 20 mph of travel
Actual SituationFocus on First 20 MPH of Travel

AMT shifts 5 times beforeAllison is out of TC mode!

allison advantages
Allison Advantages
  • Torque converter and powershift is getting power and torque to the ground better than AMT
  • Further confirmed by
    • Acceleration tests
      • Allison handily whips similar specified vehicles at much higher engine powers
    • Higher average vehicle speeds (acceleration edge)
      • We outshine the AMT in average vehicle speeds over similar duty cycles
      • We routinely defeat AMT in fuel efficiency
acceleration vs axle ratio
Acceleration vs. Axle Ratio

80% C.E. gradeability is less than 12%

UncommonAxle Ratios

Reasonable Axle Ratios

summary
Summary
  • Torque converter is main differentiator between Allison and AMT/manual transmissions
  • Allison 6-speed has better startability than manuals and AMTs
summary1
Summary
  • Manuals and AMTs depend upon having more gear ratios
    • AMTs and manuals require deep gearing because they do not have a torque converter
    • Allison does more work and provides superior launch with less
    • More power-interrupt shifts (hurt fuel efficiency and emissions)
applying shallower axle logic
Applying Shallower Axle Logic
  • Next slide is same as previous with only the axle ratio changed
  • Still shows superior startability
  • Leads into fuel consumption savings
    • Engine speed reduction
    • Spin loss reduction
    • Engine auxiliary parasitic reduction
with a more shallow axle ratio

Determine Wheel Torque (TW):

With a More ShallowAxle Ratio

AMT / Manual

Diesel

Engine

TE

RC = 16.70

1st = 12.19

3.83

TW, AMT =850 lb-ft x 1.0 x 12.19 x 3.83 = 39680 lb-ft

Still 61% higher with a 7% faster axle!!

TW, Allison= 1650 lb-ft x2.0 x 4.70 x 4.11 = 63750 lb-ft

Allison 4500 RDS

Diesel

Engine

TE

TC

RC = 14.03

1st = 4.70

4.11

2.0

(avg)