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Use of Biological Control in Aquatic Systems. What is Biological Control? Controlling invasive species by intentional release of native/non-native: Herbivores/Predators Parasites Diseases Pesticides (most common) Mechanical Removal . What determines a Biological control?

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use of biological control in aquatic systems
Use of Biological Control in Aquatic Systems
  • What is Biological Control?
  • Controlling invasive species by intentional release of native/non-native:
    • Herbivores/Predators
    • Parasites
    • Diseases
    • Pesticides (most common)
    • Mechanical Removal
  • What determines a Biological control?
  • Respond to repeated host outbreaks
  • Able to survive in target area
  • Host specific
  • USES
  • Reduce Common Pests
    • Dinoflagellates: reduce mortality of fish, invertebrates, grass beds, increase toxins in shellfish
    • Red Algae: degrade coral reefs
    • Jellyfish: powerful sting, decrease fish and zooplankton
    • Bivalves: spread mortal diseases, reduce phytoplankton, alter diets of fish and birds, replace other suspension/filter feeders
    • Sea urchins: destroy kelp beds, decrease fish stocks
    • Burrowing shrimps: disturb sediments and filter/suspension feeders
    • Crabs: EUROPEAN GREEN CRAB, Carcinus maenas
      • Burrows into banks, causes erosion
      • Only control is Nermertean egg predator
      • Other crabs (China) can be hosts for flukes
    • Fishes: replace native fish
  • Use of Native Species
    • More effectively track pests
    • Evolve with pests
    • Less time consuming and expensive
    • Not quarentined

IS A PEST, A PEST?

  • RISKS
  • Predation, Parasitism, Herbivory of Non-Target Species
    • “Any predator or herbivore maintained at high densities can potentially drive a rare non-target species to extinction.” (Simberloff 1966)
  • Competition with Native Species
  • Effects within Community and Ecosystem
    • “Non-native species that destroys a keystone species or becomes a dominant structural element, might be expected to have a huge impact, not easily predicted.” (Simberloff 1967)
  • Aquatic environments ‘open’—offspring disperse quickly, easily, do not stay with parents
    • Makes pest removal very difficult
  • Aquatic pests eradicated modestly/low levels to reduce effects
    • How much ‘control’ is needed to reduce impact of pest?
  • Environmental Safety

References:

Lafferty, Kevin D, Armand M. Kuris. “Biological Control of Marine Pests”. Ecology, Vol. 77, No. 7. Oct, 1996. 1989-2000.

Sheldon, Sallie P, Robert P. Creed Jr. “Use of Native Insect as a Biological Control for an Introduced Weed”. Ecological Applications, Vol. 5, No. 4. Nov, 1995. 1122-1132.

Simberloff, Daniel, Peter Stiling. “How Risky is Biological Control”. Ecology, Vol. 77, No. 7. Oct, 1996. 1965-1974.