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    1. Biological control Joyce E. Loper Research Plant Pathologist, USDA-Agricultural Research Service Professor (courtesy), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology loperj@science.oregonstate.edu 738-4057

    2. The Plant Disease Triangle

    3. Biological control Reduction of the amount of inoculum or disease-producing activity of a pathogen accomplished by or through one or more organisms other than humans.

    4. Biological control gained strength as a subdiscipline of Plant Pathology in the 1960s, when a group of scientists recognized that epidemics of soilborne plant diseases could not be understood without considering the the ecology of soil fungi and Oomycetes and the resident soil microflora.

    6. Kinds of Biological Control Conservation- cultural practices Suppressive soils General suppression Specific suppression Classical self sustaining following a single release of a natural enemy Augmentative periodic introduction to supplement natural reproduction Chestnut Blight and hypovirulence Innudative mass introduction of biocontrol agent Crown gall Heterobasion root rot Fire blight Postharvest diseases

    7. Suppressive Soils The pathogen does not establish or persist The pathogen establishes but causes little or no disease

    8. General Suppression

    11. Take-all decline with monoculture of wheat

    15. The antibiotic 2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol is toxic to the take-all pathogen

    23. Kinds of Biological Control Conservation- cultural practices Suppressive soils General suppression Specific suppression Classical self sustaining following a single release of a natural enemy Augmentative periodic introduction to supplement natural reproduction Innudative mass introduction of biocontrol agent Crown gall Heterobasion root rot Fire blight Postharvest diseases

    24. Biological control with Introduced Antagonists Biological control agent: Hypovirulent isolates of Cryphonectria parasitica Disease: Chestnut Blight Pathogen: Cryphonectria parasitica Mechanism: hypovirulence

    32. Kinds of Biological Control Conservation- cultural practices Suppressive soils General suppression Specific suppression Classical self sustaining following a single release of a natural enemy Augmentative periodic introduction to supplement natural reproduction Chestnut Blight and hypovirulence Innudative mass introduction of biocontrol agent Crown gall Heterobasion root rot Fire blight Postharvest diseases

    33. Biological control with Introduced Antagonists Biological control agent: Agrobacterium radiobacter Disease: Crown gall Pathogen: Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mechanism: antibiosis

    39. Kinds of Biological Control Conservation- Suppressive soils General suppression Specific suppression Classical self sustaining following a single release of a natural enemy Augmentative periodic introduction to supplement natural reproduction Chestnut Blight and hypovirulence Innudative mass introduction of biocontrol agent Crown gall Heterobasion root rot Fire blight Postharvest diseases

    43. Kinds of Biological Control Conservation- Suppressive soils General suppression Specific suppression Classical self sustaining following a single release of a natural enemy Augmentative periodic introduction to supplement natural reproduction Chestnut Blight and hypovirulence Innudative mass introduction of biocontrol agent Crown gall Heterobasion root rot Fire blight Postharvest diseases

    44. Decay management product for Citrus Stone fruits Pome fruits Potatoes Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-10 (006441) Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 (006451) Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-10 and Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 are natural strains of bacteria that occur on many kinds of plants throughout the world. They were originally isolated and identified from apples. They are applied to certain fruits before storage in order to protect the fruits from several fungal diseases. Although the exact method of disease control is unknown, these harmless bacteria probably outcompete the fungi for space and nutrients on the fruit, thereby preventing the fruit from rotting before it can be used. Application Methods: After the fruit is harvested and cleaned, its surface is exposed to a solution containing the ESC-10 or ESC-11 bacterium. The pesticide applicator can apply the solution by spraying, or by dipping the fruit into the solution. These applications are considered indoor uses, since they take place in enclosed areas. EcoScience BIOSAVE 10LP, BIO-SAVE 11 LP JET HARVEST Q. What is the difference between Bio-Save100, Bio-Save110 and Bio-Save1000 and Bio-Save 10 LP? Which one should I use? A. The active ingredient in all three products is Pseudomonas syringae. But the Pseudomonas syringae isolates differ in their ability to protect produce from diseases. At this time it appears Bio-Save100 is more effective controlling apple disease, Bio-Save110 is more effective controlling disease in pears and potatoes, and Bio-Save 1000 is best on citrus, cherries and potatoes. Bio-Save 10 LP is a replacement for the Bio-Save 100 and Bio-Save 1000. Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-10 (006441)Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 (006451) Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-10 and Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC-11 are natural strains of bacteria that occur on many kinds of plants throughout the world. They were originally isolated and identified from apples. They are applied to certain fruits before storage in order to protect the fruits from several fungal diseases. Although the exact method of disease control is unknown, these harmless bacteria probably outcompete the fungi for space and nutrients on the fruit, thereby preventing the fruit from rotting before it can be used. Application Methods: After the fruit is harvested and cleaned, its surface is exposed to a solution containing the ESC-10 or ESC-11 bacterium. The pesticide applicator can apply the solution by spraying, or by dipping the fruit into the solution. These applications are considered indoor uses, since they take place in enclosed areas. EcoScience BIOSAVE 10LP, BIO-SAVE 11 LP JET HARVEST Q. What is the difference between Bio-Save100, Bio-Save110 and Bio-Save1000 and Bio-Save 10 LP? Which one should I use? A. The active ingredient in all three products is Pseudomonas syringae. But the Pseudomonas syringae isolates differ in their ability to protect produce from diseases. At this time it appears Bio-Save100 is more effective controlling apple disease, Bio-Save110 is more effective controlling disease in pears and potatoes, and Bio-Save 1000 is best on citrus, cherries and potatoes. Bio-Save 10 LP is a replacement for the Bio-Save 100 and Bio-Save 1000.

    46. Market need: few labeled chemicals fungicide resistance problem System characteristics

    51. Usage History of Bio-Save by Crop

    53. The Plant Disease Triangle