The Mughal Empire. Chapter 2 Section 3. UEQ and LEQ. UEQ: How was absolutism expressed in different areas around the world? LEQ: How did Akbar use cultural blending in the Mughal Empire?. Vocabulary. Mughal Akbar Babur Taj Mahal Shah Jahan Mumtaz Mahal Sikh Sultan Aurangzeb.
The Mughal Empire Chapter 2 Section 3
UEQ and LEQ • UEQ: How was absolutism expressed in different areas around the world? • LEQ: How did Akbar use cultural blending in the Mughal Empire?
Vocabulary • Mughal • Akbar • Babur • Taj Mahal • Shah Jahan • Mumtaz Mahal • Sikh • Sultan • Aurangzeb
Map Activity Warm Up • Using the same map that you have filled in when we talked about the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, turn to page 71 in your textbook. • Use the map that you filled for the Ottoman and Safavid Empires and fill in the Mughal Empire using a different colored pencil. • Be sure to label that new empire in the map legend.
Early History of the Mughals • Mughals began as a group of Muslims that took over parts of the country of India. • These controlling Muslims were given the nickname of Mughal, which means “Mongol.” Are they the same???
Beginning of the Empire • For 300 years, Hindus and Muslims fought over the land of the country of India. • 1494 • 11 year old boy by the name of Babur, inherits land in an area to the north of India. • Other rulers kick him out of the small empire and force him to move south. • Babur builds an army and takes over much of the country of India. • Babur was a brilliant military leader. • Defeated an army of 100,000 soldiers using his own army of 12,000.
Akbar's Golden Age • After Babur’s death, his 13 year old grandson Akbar becomes ruler of the Mughal Empire in India. • As ruler Akbar realized that he could increase his power by creating a large army. • Akbar was able to gain control of land in India that his grandfather, Babur could not. • Akbar helped unite 100 million people within the Mughal Empire.
Akbar's Rule • Under Akbar, a golden age “age of wealth” begins in the Mughal Empire. • Cultural Blending • Like the Safavid ruler Suleiman , Akbar allowed religious freedom in India. • He married Hindu princesses without forcing them to change their religion. • He got rid of the tax on non-Muslims and the tax that travelers paid to come into the country. • Allowed Hindus and Muslims to work together in government jobs.
Art, Literature, and Architecture • Cultural Blending allowed Akbar to change different areas in the Mughal Empire. • Art • Book Illustrations “miniature scenes” became very popular in the Mughal Empire and other countries. • Architecture • Mughal buildings used Hindu building designs • Literature • Mughal stories became very popular and books on the events were demanded by other ethnic groups.
Akbar's Successors • 1605 • Akbar dies and the Mughal government changes to allow itself to handle new situations better and faster. • 2 New Rulers • Jahangir • Allowed his wife Nur Jahan to rule instead of him, her rule causes religious problems and fights between Mughals and the Sikhs, which were a non-violent religious group. • Shah Jahan • Son of Jahangir
Shah Jahan • Did not tolerate competition to be ruler, so he had all of his rivals assassinated. • Two Passions • Beautiful Buildings • His wife Mumtaz Mahal • 1631 • Mumtaz Mahal dies at the age of 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. • To “remember” his wife, Shah Jahan has the Taj Mahal built with the order that it be built, “as beautiful as she was beautiful.”
TajMahal: World's Biggest Coffin Taj Mahal Today
Shah Jahan's Problems ruling • While Shah Jahan had gardens, monuments, and forts built for the country, he used very little money to help the Mughal people. • Problems • Shah Jahan increased taxes regularly to pay for his expensive projects. • 1657 • Shah Jahan becomes ill and his four sons fight for control and power. • Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan’s third son takes over, has his oldest brother killed and his dying father imprisoned.
Aurangzeb's Rule • Aurangzeb rules from 1658 to 1707 • Expanded land controlled by the Mughal Empire • Problems • Outlawed most activities (drinking, gambling, etc.) • Forced people to pray at certain times during the day by having police watch people. • Brought back taxes on non-Muslims and visitors to the country. • Kicked Hindus out of government jobs. • Had many Hindu buildings and monuments destroyed.
End of Mughal Empire • Because of the high taxes, Aurangzeb forced Mughals’ into poverty, which caused Aurangzeb to not be able to pay to rebuild the Mughal army. • 2 million Mughals’ died because of famine and disease spreading in India. • Aurangzeb gave cities and land to different European ethnic groups, such as the Dutch, French, and English. • Allows European countries to control India years later. • When Aurangzeb dies, his three sons fight for control of the Empire, which is just small pieces of land.
Important Women of India (Past and Present) reading Assignment • Complete the handout on the most important women in the history of India. • Using page 85 in your textbook, read the chart at the top of the page to help you answer the same three questions for each of the four women. • Write your answers in the chart on the back. • Use the charts information to help you answer the four questions at the bottom of the page. • Be sure to answer the questions in full detail.
Exit Ticket • Below are the names of the rulers that were the most important to the Mughal Empire, for each one give a brief explanation how each had a positive (good) or negative (bad) effect on the Mughal Empire. • Shah Jahan • Aurangzeb • Babur • Akbar • Jahangir