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Chapter 21 The Age of Imperialism. 1800 - 1914. Key Events. Competition among European nations led to the partition of Africa. Colonial rule created a new social class of Westernized intellectuals. British rule brought order and stability to India, but with its own set of costs.

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Chapter 21 The Age of Imperialism

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key events
Key Events
  • Competition among European nations led to the partition of Africa.
  • Colonial rule created a new social class of Westernized intellectuals.
  • British rule brought order and stability to India, but with its own set of costs.
  • As a colonial power, the US practiced many of the same imperialist policies as European nations.
the impact today
The Impact Today
  • Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe.
  • India adopted a parliamentary form of government like that of Great Britain.
  • The US gave up rights to the Panama Canal Zone on December 31, 1999.
  • Europeans migrated to the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
section 1

Section 1

Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia

the new imperialism
The New Imperialism
  • European expansion into Asia and Africa for their raw materials.
  • “New Imperialism” – Instead of trading posts/cities, whole countries were taken.
  • European belief in Social Darwinism and racism.
    • “White Man’s Burden”
colonial takeover in southeast asia
Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia
  • Great Britain sets up posts at Singapore and Burma to increase trade and presence in SE Asia and protect India.
  • France expands control over Vietnam and surrounding lands to stop Britain’s monopoly in SE Asia.
colonial takeover continued
Colonial Takeover (Continued)
  • The US takes the Philippines in the Spanish-American War.
  • Thailand stays independent.
    • Acts as a buffer between the French and British possessions.
    • “Willingness” to westernize itself.
colonial regimes is se asia
Colonial Regimes is SE Asia
  • Two different types of colonial rule.
    • Direct Rule- Mother country sets up own people at local governments.
    • Indirect Rule- Local leaders rule on behalf of the mother country.
  • The economy is set up to make large profits and suppress the local workers.
resistance to colonial rule
Resistance to Colonial Rule
  • Early resistance movements led by local/native government officials and nobles.
  • Peasants revolt for economic and religious freedom.
section 2

Section 2

Empire Building in Africa

west africa
West Africa
  • Before 1880, most of western Africa is independent.
  • British expansion into the area alarmed other nations and by 1914, all of West Africa is claimed except for Liberia.
  • France controls most of West Africa.
north africa
North Africa
  • Egypt gains independence under Muhammad Ali and westernizes.
  • Britain gains interest in Egypt after the building of the Suez Canal.
  • France expands control in Algiers, and later Tunisia.
  • Italy takes Libya after failing to conquer Ethiopia.
central africa
Central Africa
  • David Livingstone explores central Africa for around thirty years.
  • Henry Stanley continues Livingstone’s exploration.
    • Hates Africa and urges Belgium to take the Congo River Valley.
  • France fears of Belgian control of central Africa and rushes to control the region.
east africa
East Africa
  • Britain and Germany are chief rivals in area.
  • The German people really wanted an empire.
  • The Berlin Conference of 1884 and 1885 created to settle claims by both Britain and Germany in east Africa.
south africa
South Africa
  • Great European presence.
  • Britain takes Cape Town and the surrounding colony from the Dutch (Boers) during the Napoleonic Wars.
    • The Boers move north to create their own colony and put the natives, like the Zulu, on reservations.
  • Cecil Rhodes wants to have British colonies “from the Cape to Cairo,” to create railroads to transport his goods from the diamond and gold mines.
south africa continued
South Africa Continued
  • The Boer War erupted between the British and the Dutch.
  • Union of South Africa created as a self-governing nation within the British Empire and allowed both British and Boers to vote.
colonial rule in africa
Colonial Rule in Africa
  • By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remain independent.
    • Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal all have holdings in Africa
  • Britain preferred indirect rule, but left little room for class movement.
  • France and other nations preferred direct rule and tried to assimilate the African people to their culture.
rise of african nationalism
Rise of African Nationalism
  • A new class of African intellectuals arises that has a love-hate relationship with western culture.
  • Most Africans feel repressed by having low-paying or no jobs with little to no government representation.
  • Africa becomes very segregated.
  • Intellectuals use western ideals to stir up nationalism and spark movements to end foreign rule.
section 3

Section 3

British Rule in India

the sepoy mutiny first war of independence
The Sepoy Mutiny/First War of Independence
  • The British East India Company grows in influence over Indian affairs.
    • Sepoys rebel in 1857 over rumor that the new bullets being issued were greased in pig and cow fat.
  • Outside of Delhi, the sepoys revolted at a fort and killed 50 Europeans.
  • Revolt spreads in a year but the British outnumber the rebels and end the rebellion.
colonial rule the viceroy and 3 500 officials rule over the country of 300 million people
Colonial RuleThe viceroy and 3,500 officials rule over the country of 300 million people.



Only British business leaders and a few Indians receive financial benefits.

Millions of Indians live in poverty.

Low food supplies.

British didn’t treat Indians equally and disrespected their culture.

  • Stability to the country locked in civil war.
  • Brought schools.
  • Introduced railroads, the telegraph, and a postal service.
indian nationalist movement
Indian Nationalist Movement
  • Upper class, English educated Indians create the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1885.
  • Mohandas Ghandi later pushes for independence after seeing exploitation of Indians in South Africa.
colonial indian culture
Colonial Indian Culture
  • Experienced a cultural revival in the early nineteenth century.
    • British college established in Calcutta.
    • Opening of a publishing house.
  • Literature produced in native tongues.
    • Rabindranath Tagore’s writings show the love-hate relationship many Indians have with the British.
section 4

Section 4

Nation Building in Latin America

nationalist revolts
Nationalist Revolts
  • The successful revolution in North America spreads south.
  • Central and South Americans sick of the class system.
    • Peninsulares – Top class, native born Europeans.
    • Creoles – Middle class, held land and businesses, European descendants born in Latin America.
    • Mestizos – Lowest class and largest group, servants and laborers, mixed descent.
prelude to revolution
Prelude to Revolution
  • Creoles have growing resentment towards the peninsulares of Spain and Portugal.
  • Between 1807 and 1825, many revolts take place because of Spain and Portugal’s weakened state after the Napoleonic Wars.
revolt in mexico
Revolt in Mexico
  • Miguel Hidalgo leads local Indians and mestizos against the controlling creoles and peninsulares.
    • Hidalgo’s attempt fails.
  • 1822, military leader Agustin de Iturbide is made emperor, but is disposed of a year later for a republic.
revolts in south america
Revolts in South America
  • Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela lead revolution throughout the continent.
    • Freed Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile.
  • Spanish try to regain control with the help of other European nations, but British trade interests and America’s Monroe Doctrine stopped that.
difficulties of nation building
Difficulties of Nation Building
  • Caudillos rule by personal power.
    • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico put the nation into chaos for over 20 years.
  • Great Britain and the US hold economic dominance over Latin America.
  • Despite independence, many Latin nations still experienced inequality.
    • Most land still held by the elite.
political change in latin america
Political Change in Latin America
  • The US annexes Puerto Rico and makes Cuba a protectorate after the Spanish-American War.
  • Emiliano Zapata leads a revolution in Mexico to combat inequality and foreign influence.
    • Created land-reform policies, established limits on foreign investors, and set up programs that helped the workers.
economic change
Economic Change
  • Trade increases between Latin America and the US & Europe.
  • A professional middle-class begins to grow.
    • Cities grow, higher education sought, desire for high incomes.
  • Prosperity makes people seek reform instead of revolution.