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Substance Abuse

Substance Abuse

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Substance Abuse

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  1. Substance Abuse http://www.drugfreeworld.org/real-life-stories.html

  2. Attitudes about Tobacco • I think that people start to use tobacco because… • Banning smoking in public places is… • Warning labels on cigarette packages are… • How do you feel when you are exposed to second hand smoke?

  3. Tobacco Journal • After reading the article “Social Smoking”, respond to the following questions on the back of your Tobacco Attitudes worksheet. • What is social smoking? • Why are teens more likely to get addicted to smoking if they only have a few cigarettes a month/week? • Why do teens smoke? (Give 3 reasons.)

  4. Teens and Tobacco Why do teens use tobacco? • Influence of friends: teens may feel pressure to be a part of the group. • Influence of family: teens see parents who are smokers and relate that behavior to being an adult. • Influence of media: tactics are used by the media to glamorize tobacco use.

  5. MediaInfluence • Legaltactics: advertisements on websites and in magazines, advertisements in stores where cigarettes are sold, direct mail, and tobacco companies sponsor events and offer discounts to keep prices low. • Illegaltactics: advertisements on the radio, TV, and billboards, cartoon images that might attract children or teens This ad implies that smoking Camel cigarettes will promote an intimate relationship with this proactively positioned woman. Ads associating smoking with sex have a strong appeal to the teenage male.

  6. Tobacco Products • Tobacco products are made from the dried, processed leaves of tobacco plants. • Tobacco plants naturally produce a chemical that acts as an insecticide to protect the plants’ leaves from insects. • This insecticide is nicotine, a very addictive chemical found in tobacco products.

  7. Products • Products that are smoked: cigarettes, clove cigarettes, cigars and pipes. • Smokeless Tobacco products: chewing tobacco (“dip or chew”) and snuff. • Tobacco users take in nicotine whenever they use cigarettes, cigars, pipes or smokeless tobacco!

  8. Chemicals in Tobacco Products • Nicotine is a stimulant drug. • Stimulants increase activity in the nervous system. • Once nicotine is in the bloodstream, it reaches the brain within seconds. • Nicotine affects your breathing, movement, learning, memory, mood, and appetite. • People who use tobacco frequently begin to rely on this feeling from nicotine. • This is what causes addiction.

  9. Tobacco ProductsThere are over 4,000 chemicals in tobacco products. • Some of them include: • Tar • Carcinogens • carbon monoxide • Ammonia • Propane • Acetone • Formaldehyde • Stearicacid (candle wax) • Cadmium (batteries) • Arsenic (weed killer) • Naphthalene (mothballs) The Magical Amount!

  10. Anti-Smoking Messages • List as many reasons why you think that some teens start to smoke. • Now join with a partner and discuss your reasons. How many different reasons did you come up with? Assignment: • Design a colorful t-shirt or bumper sticker with an anti-smoking message. The message should address at least one of the reasons you and your partner listed. • When finished, turn in your list and t-shirt or bumper sticker.

  11. Tobacco Journal #2 • Read the story “My Cigarette, My Friend” and answer the journal questions below. This journal will be collected. • What is your reaction to this story? • What are your thoughts and/or feelings about this “friend”? • Why would someone continue to be treated this way?

  12. Risks of Tobacco Use:Respiratory Diseases • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)– a disease that results from gradual loss of lung function. • Chronic Bronchitis– airways are constantly inflamed and mucus production is increased, resulting in difficulty breathing. • Emphysema – a disorder in which alveoli in the lungs can no longer function properly.

  13. Risks of Tobacco Use • Cardiovascular Disease: raises blood pressure, increase cholesterol, hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), blood clots, which can all cause a heart attack or stroke. • Cancers: lung cancer, oral cancer (leukoplakia), esophagus, larynx, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, blood cancer, as well as many other sites. • Secondhand smoke and smoking while pregnant can cause the same health problems as smoking first hand.

  14. Attitudes about Alcohol • People drink alcohol when… • Controlling the use of alcohol is… • Getting drunk is… • Running ads for alcohol on TV sports programs is… Journal Question (answer on back of worksheet) • Describe how your parents or other family members influence your decisions about alcohol.

  15. Facts about Alcohol • Alcohol is not always thought of as being a drug, but it is. • A drug is a chemical substance that is taken to cause changes in a person’s body or behaviors. • Alcohol is a powerful depressant. • A depressant is: a drug that slows the brain and body reactions. • It can cause confusion, decreased alertness, poor coordination, blurred vision, and drowsiness.

  16. Facts about Alcohol • When people drink alcohol faster than the body can break it down into harmless compounds, they become intoxicated. In some cases, they may even blackout. • Intoxication: is the state in which a person’s mental and physical abilities are impaired by alcohol or another substance. • Blackout: a period of time that the drinker cannot recall.

  17. Teens and Alcohol • Alcohol is illegal for teens and others under the age of 21. The attitudes of peers, family, and the media strongly influence underage drinking. Risks of underage drinking: • Being injured or killed in a motor vehicle crash • Committing or being the victim of sexual assault or other violence • Long-term brain damage • Problems with alcohol later in life • Suspension from school, sports teams, or other school activities • Legal issues, including heavy fines and loss of driver’s license

  18. Risks of Underage Drinking

  19. Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) • The amount of alcohol is a person’s blood, expressed in a percentage. • For example, a BAC of 0.1 percent means that one-tenth of 1 percent of the fluid in the blood is alcohol.

  20. Factors Affecting BAC:Rate of Consumption • A person’s liver chemically breaks down, or metabolizes, alcohol at a fairly constant rate. • The rate is one half to one ounce of alcohol per hour. • Therefore people who have a few drinks in one hour have a higher BAC than people who drink the same amount over several hours.

  21. Factors Affecting BAC:Gender • Males will generally have a lower BAC than females. • In males, a larger amount of alcohol gets metabolized in the stomach before it enters the blood stream and the liver is also more efficient in metabolizing alcohol.

  22. Factors Affecting BAC:Body Size & Food Consumption • Smaller people (by weight and height), feel the effects of alcohol more than larger people. • They will have a higher BAC after a similar number of drinks. • Drinking on an empty stomach increases the rate of alcohol absorption into the bloodstream, resulting in a higher BAC.

  23. Long Term Risks of Alcohol • Brain Damage destroys nerve cells in the brain, which can impair memory and concentration. • Fetal Alcohol Syndromea group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on an unborn child. www.nlm.nih.gov

  24. Long Term Risks of Alcohol • Liver Damage– interferes with the liver’s ability to break down fat (metabolize), heavy drinking can cause the liver to fill with fat, causing cirrhosis which can lead to liver failure.

  25. Long Term Risks of Alcohol • Heart Disease– increased blood pressure and heart rate, irregular heartbeat, and a buildup of fatty deposits in the heart muscle. • Digestive Problems– cancers of the mouth and stomach, recurring diarrhea, chronic indigestion, heartburn or ulcers.

  26. Journal • Myth: Alcoholics sleep on park benches and wear shabby clothes. • Fact: Alcoholics come from all cultures, backgrounds, and levels of education. • How does the media portray our perception of an alcoholic?

  27. Alcoholism • A disease marked by a person being unable to control their use of alcohol • Physically, an alcoholic’s body requires alcohol to function. • Psychologically, alcoholics consider drinking a regular, essential part of coping with daily life.

  28. The Stages of Alcoholism • Stage 1 – Problem Drinking: social drinkers who start to use alcohol to relieve stress or escape from problems in their life. • Stage 2 – Absolute Dependence: the drinker becomes totally dependent on alcohol. He or she can usually not stop after one drink, and feels a constant need to drink. • Stage 3 – Late Stage of Alcoholism: when alcoholics lose their mental, emotional, and physical health. Their entire life revolves around drinking; they become isolated from society and begin to experience serious health problems or may even die.

  29. Treating Alcoholism • Acknowledging the Problem– the alcoholic must acknowledge the problem and ask for help. • Detoxification – this process involves removing all alcohol from the person’s body. The alcoholic will then suffer from withdrawal, which is symptoms that occur when a dependent person stops taking a drug, such as, irritability, rapid heartbeat and sweating. • Rehabilitation – the process of learning to cope with everyday living without alcohol. Alcoholics will receive counseling to understand their disease and behavior.

  30. Media Influences Myth in Advertisements about alcohol: • Drinking is a risk-free activity. • You can’t survive without drinking. • Problem-drinking behaviors are normal. • Alcohol is a magic potion that can transform you. • Sports and alcohol go together. • If these products were truly dangerous, the media would tell us. • Alcoholic beverage companies promote moderation in drinking. Sample Alcohol Advertisements

  31. Glamorized by the Media • After analyzing the different advertisements that you saw on TV, in magazines or on the internet, choose one that you thought had the most swaying or appealing ad. • Your job is to use that theme to create an anti-alcohol advertisement that uses the same techniques and ideas. Requirements: • Colorful: ______/5 points • Pictures or graphic: _____/3 points • Caption or saying: _______/5 points • Congruency to original ad: _____/2 points • Total: _____/15 points • Your target audience should be able to glimpse at your ad and understand the message.

  32. Underage Drinking • Younger than 21 and… • Lying about age to obtain alcohol • Purchasing, consuming, possessing, attempting to purchase, or transport alcohol Consequences… • 1st offense: 90 days driver’s license taken away • 2nd offense: 1 year • 3rd offense: 2 years

  33. Underage Drinking • No License, under 16? • When you apply for your license, the suspension will go into affect! • When caught underage drinking, you will also have to… • Pay a $500 fine • Take alcohol education classes • Go to counseling • Parents will be contacted to pick you up.

  34. Underage Drinking • Any parent or adult who supplies, gives, sells, or makes alcohol, makes False ID’s, and does not watch as teens drink at party/house (even if it’s their own child)… • Will be responsible for underage drinking • $2,500 fine for EACH teen, charged with supplying alcohol to minors, destruction of minors and any medical or vandalism fines

  35. Your Own DUI Laws • Answer the questions with a partner to create your own “Driving Under the Influence” Laws. • Information can be found… • Textbook, pages 382-383 • Use the BAC orange text charts at the top and bottom right of the page. • On the website available on Mrs. Krech’s webpage and at the bottom of your worksheet. http://dui.drivinglaws.org/pa-dui.php

  36. Legal and Illegal Drugs Proper Use • Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs – a medicine that is sold legally in pharmacies and other stores without a doctor’s prescription. • Prescription drugs – a drug that can be obtained only with a written order from a doctor and can only be purchased at a pharmacy. • By using the instructions on the label or following the doctor’s orders to treat a medical condition, is the proper use of these drugs.

  37. Legal and Illegal Drugs • Drug Misuse: the improper use of medicines (prescription or OTC drugs). Examples would be taking more than the prescribed amount or not taking a drug for the correct period of time. • Drug Abuse: when a drug is intentionally use improperly or unsafely. Examples would be abusing prescription pain killers or OTC cough medicines to cause a “high”, rather than to treat pain or a cough.

  38. Dangers of Drug Misuse and Abuse • Side effects– unwanted physical or mental effect cause by a drug. • Tolerance – drug use needs increasingly larger amounts of the drug to achieve the original effect. • Dependence – the body develops a chemical need for the drug and can’t function normally without it. • Withdrawal symptoms– nausea, vomiting, headaches, fever, paranoia, seizures, death

  39. Risk Factors • A number of factors make it either more or less likely that a teen will abuse drugs. They include family factors, social factors, and personal factors. • How does each of these factors influence teen drug abuse? • How does each of these factors influence teens choosing not to abuse drugs?

  40. Commonly Abused Drugs:Depressants • Slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure. • Examples - Barbiturates, Sedatives, Painkillers, Tranquilizers, Opiates, Heroin, Morphine, Codeine, Alcohol, GHB • Side effects– poor coordination, slurred speech, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, impaired judgment, memory problems, and drowsiness

  41. Depressants

  42. Commonly Abused Drugs:Stimulants • Increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and alertness. • Examples – Amphetamines, Speed, Methamphetamine, Cocaine, Crack Cocaine, Ecstasy • Side effects– restlessness, rapid speech, increased respiration, convulsions, stroke, loss of appetite, nausea

  43. Stimulants

  44. Commonly Abused Drugs:Hallucinogens • Overload the brain with sensory information, causing a distorted sense of reality. • Examples – LSD (“acid”), Psilocybin (“mushrooms”), PCP (“angel dust”), Ketamine, Mescaline, Ecstasy • Side Effects– hallucinations, flashbacks, eliminated sensation of pain, schizophrenia

  45. Hallucinogens

  46. Commonly Abused Drugs:Marijuana • Is one of the most frequently abused psychoactive drugs. • Its main ingredient changes the way information reaches and is acted upon by the brain. • Side Effects– distorted perceptions, difficulties with thinking and problem solving, loss of motor coordination, increased heart rate, anxiety, paranoia

  47. Commonly Abused Drugs:Club Drugs • Strength and quality of these drugs is unpredictable and their effects are different from person to person and are very dangerous. • Some people are unknowing victims of these drugs; they are often referred to as “date-rape” drugs. • Examples– Ecstasy, Rohypnol, GHB, Ketamine

  48. Club Drugs