Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Appalachians to Mississippi River Spain, Britain, U.S. and many Indian Nations wanted control of region All considered the region important Native Americans considered the region as homeland Southeast Spain clamed area (today’s Alabama, Mississippi, and Western Tennessee Land also claimed by U.S. Spain could not stop settlers from U.S. from moving into the territory Offered Spanish citizenship to win allegiance
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Southeast Congress seemed like it might consider the permanent closing of New Orleans in return for other Spanish concessions in other regions Many westerners began talking openly of secession Many only accepted gold and favors from Spanish to pocket the profits Andrew Jackson, 1789 – “the only immediate way to obtain peace with the Savage” (Indians).
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Southeast Washington realized he may not be able to preserve peace Prepared for war, hoping for continued peace 1789 - Peace seemed more likely. Spain opened New Orleans to American commerce. Exports were subject to 15% duty Succession sentiment slowly died Well known political figures were subject to bribery during this period of history
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Southeast Well known political figures were subject to bribery during this period of history James Wilkinson, former general on Washington’s staff received bribes from the Spanish Thomas Scott, congressman from western Pennsylvania schemed with British Hoping to strengthen loyalty to U.S., between 1791 and 1796 three new states were admitted to the union; Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Southeast Weakening Spanish Influence Washington wanted to improve relations with Native Americans and weaken Spain’s influence 1790 Creeks signed treaty of New York with U. S. Permitted American settlers to remain on lands in Georgia Piedmont fought over since 1786 Preserved Creek territory against U. S. expansion Washington insisted that Georgia restore to the Chickasaws and Choctaws, the area along the Mississippi River known as the Yazoo Tract
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Britain’s Indian allies in the Ohio valley Washington’s policy much more harsh 1790 Military force used to force peace It failed, General Josiah Harmar was defeated on the Maumee River by native Americans November 1791, Disaster occurred when one thousand warriors killed nine hundred out of fourteen hundred soldiers led by General Arthur St. Clair Benevolence Policy similar to the British Policy proclaimed in 1763 (Secretary of War, Henry Knox) Chaos in west – trespassers invaded Indian lands Native peoples rejected U.S. claims to sovereignty
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Indian Lands Indian Non-Intercourse Act, 1790 Regulating trade Government also wanted to “civilize” the natives Abandon communal landownership and seasonal migrations for hunting, gathering, and fishing. Adopting private property and an agricultural way of life, Secretary of War Henry Knox thought that Indians would join American society while making much additional land available for whites. Natives wanted European material goods, but would not give up traditional ways Whites were equally opposed to integrating Native Americans into their society
Challenging American Expansion 1789-1792 Indian Lands After being defeated twice by Native forces, Washington’s western policy was a disaster. 1792 Spain convinced Creek nation to void Treaty of New York with U. S. Americans believed that only an alliance with France could counter balance the combined strength of Spain, Britain, and Native American forces.
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Americans remained fundamentally sympathetic to Revolution France abolished noble privilege Wrote a constitution Repelled invading armies from Austria and Prussia Became a Republic in 1793 France proclaimed a war of all peoples against all Kings Assumes U. S. would enlist
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Southern Slave owners support revolution 1793 slave uprising in Saint Domingue became a revolution against French rule Many fled to U. S. British invaders had supported uprising Blacks had been inspired by the U. S. and French Rev. Remembering the courting of slaves by British during Am. Rev. southern whites believed British had intentionally started the blood bath and would do the same in the South Federalist loyalty even dissipated due to anti-British feelings in S. Carolina
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Northerners repelled by the blood shed Protestant New England detested the French government’s punishing its opponents and its substituting the adoration of Reason for the worship of God Mid-Atlantic Federalists condemned French leaders as evil radicals Incited the poor against the rich
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Northern and Southern Reaction to French Revolution Economic Reasons North – almost all of the nation’s foreign trade was with Great Britain Merchants, shippers, and sailors in New England, Philadelphia, and New York feared an alliance with France would provoke British retaliation against this valuable commerce Southerners viewed Americans’ reliance on British commerce as a menace to national self-determination and wished to divert most U. S. trade to France
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Northern and Southern Reaction to French Revolution Jefferson and Madison demanded British imports be reduced Steep discriminatory duties on cargoes shipped from England and Scotland in British vessels. Federalist opponents warned that Britain would not stand by while a weak French ally pushed it into depression. Hamilton (1792) – If congress adopts this program “there will be in less than six months, an open war between the U. S. and G. B.”
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Southern and Western support for France grows after France goes to war with Spain and Great Britain in 1793 French victory might lead to a cease in blocking of U. S. Expansion by Great Britain and Spain U. S. could gain free navigation of the Mississippi Force the evacuation of the British garrisons, End both nations’ support of Indian resistance
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Declaration of war from France in 1793 against Great Britain French sent Edmond Genet as minister to the United States Ordered to mobilize republican sentiment in support of France Enlist American mercenaries to conquer Spanish territories and attack British shipping Strengthen the alliance between the two nations Pres. Washington issued a proclamation of American neutrality on April 22
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Citizen Genet arrived April 8 Found many southern volunteers for his American Foreign Legion (despite declared neutrality) General George Rogers Clark of Kentucky General Elisha Clarke of Georgia Both ordered to seize Spanish garrisons at New Orleans and St. Augustine French failed to send funds for either campaign (soldiers were not willing to fight for free)
France and Factional Politics, 1793 French Revolution begins 1789 Citizen Genet arrived April 8 Genet did not need funds for Privateers Captured plunder for themselves Summer of 1793 almost a thousand Americans were at sea in a dozen ships flying the French flag These privateers seized more than eighty British vessels and towed them to U. S. ports French consuls sold the ships and cargoes at auction
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1793-1796 Washington’s administration closed the nation’s harbors to Genet’s buccaneers Also requested the recall of French Ambassador George III on November 6, 1793, with the Privy Council issued secret orders confiscating any foreign ships trading with French islands in the Caribbean. Purposefully delayed the announcement of orders so that American ships would already be at sea and not know that they were sailing into a war zone. Royal Navy seized more than 250 American vessels.
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1793-1798 Impressment – forced enlistment of crewmen on U. S. ships. Commanders sometimes broke royal orders by taking U. S. citizens British did not recognize former subjects’ right to adopt American citizenship Impressment was a test for the new government. Would it defend its citizens from abuse?
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1793-1796 Fort Miami During a large intertribal council in February 1794,a speech was given by Canada’s Royal Governor denying U. S. claims north of the Ohio River British troops were building an eight garrison on U. S. soil, Fort Miami. (near present day Toledo) Spain built Fort San Fernando in 1794 near what is now Memphis, Tennessee.
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 He authorized General Anthony Wayne to negotiate a treaty with the Shawnees and their Ohio valley allies Sent Chief Justice John Jay to Great Britain Dispatched Thomas Pinckney to Spain
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 1. Response to offer for peace treaty Indians scoffed at Washington’s offer (had previously defeated the U. S. troops) “Mad Anthony” Wayne led 3,500 U. S. troops deep into Shawnee homeland Built Forts Burned every village within his reach August 20, 1794 Wayne’s troops defeated four hundred Shawnees at the Battle of Fallen Timbers just two miles from British Fort Miami. Wayne’s troops then built Fort Defiance Indian morale plummeted
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 1. Response to offer for peace treaty August 1795 Shawnee and eleven other tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville with Wayne Opened modern day Ohio and a portion of Indiana to white settlement and ended U. S. – Indian hostilities in the region for 16 years Tecumseh knew the battle for land was not over
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 2. John Jay’s Treaty John Jay was able to win a British promise to withdraw troops from American soil. (Wayne’s victories helped) Gained access to West Indian markets for small American ships Lost U. S. rights to load cargoes of sugar, molasses, and coffee from French colonies during wartime. Few felt treaty preserved peace with honor
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 2. John Jay’s Treaty Left Britain free to violate American neutrality Left Britain free to ruin a profitable commerce by restricting U.S. trade with France Did not end impressment Slave owners had wanted compensation for slaves taken during the Revolution 1795 Treaty Ratified by just 1 vote
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 2. John Jay’s Treaty Treaty prevented war from being inevitable Ended Britain’s post-Revolutionary occupation of U.S. territory. Expanded American trade (British governors in the West Indies open their harbors to U.S. ships) Commercial ties with India were opened (infringed on East India company monopoly) Soon after 1795, American exports to the British Empire increased 300%
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 3.Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain or Pinckney’s Treaty, ratified 1796 Won unrestricted rights to world market Duty-free access to world markets via the Mississippi Spain promised to recognize the 31st parallel as the U.S. southern boundary Spain would dismantle all fortifications on American soil, Discourage Indian attacks against western settlers
France and Factional Politics, 1793 Avoiding War, 1798-1796 Washington’s 3 Initiatives to halt war in 1794 By 1796 Washington admin. Could claim extension of American authority throughout the trans-Appalachian West Opened the Mississippi for western exports Enabled Northeastern shippers to regain British markets, Kept the nation out of a dangerous European war Jay’s Treaty shown a light on division in nation’s foreign policy (more divided in 1789 than in 1796).