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Chapter 2. Understanding and Valuing Differences. A Rich Stew. The modern workplace is much more than a melting pot in which contents are transformed into a uniform mass.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Understanding and

Valuing Differences

a rich stew
A Rich Stew
  • The modern workplace is much more than a melting pot in which contents are transformed into a uniform mass.
  • It is more like a rich stew, with ingredients varying in origin and properties, providing different flavors, nuances, and textures, and retaining their character while contributing to the whole.
  • Many characteristics of these ingredients are important, including race and ethnic origin, gender, age, abilities, sexual orientation, personality, attitudes, and much more.
a rich stew continued
A Rich Stew (Continued)
  • As the ingredients become more varied, they offer the potential for an expanded, more exotic and exciting menu.
  • Still, it is a challenge to blend the ingredients in ways that bring out their best properties.
  • And, a stew that is a delight to one person may seem bland or bitter or simply unpalatable to another.
  • In this chapter we explore the challenge of recognizing and capturing the best qualities of available ingredients -- valuing diversity -- while creating a successful stew -- managing diversity.
some individual differences in organizations








Some Individual Differencesin Organizations



managing diversity
Managing Diversity
  • Diversityrefers to the membership mix in organizations in terms of gender, race, ethnic origin, and other characteristics.
  • The Pillsbury Company defines diversity as “all the ways in which we differ.”
  • Historically, many companies have focused on the potential problems created by a diverse workforce.
    • It was felt there would be more misunderstandings and coordination problems as diversity increased.
    • Very real prejudices against members of certain groups, such as blacks and women, could lead to conflict and mistrust.
  • Increasingly, organizations are learning to value diversity.
valuing diversity
Valuing Diversity
  • Diversity can provide a powerful competitive advantage.
  • A diverse workforce brings more perspectives and a wider range of knowledge to bear on problems, increasing creativity and decision-making effectiveness.
  • Diversity helps the firm understand and meet the needs of diverse markets.
  • Companies that become successful at managing a diverse workforce also see their recruiting prospects enhanced.
  • Active steps toward fostering diversity in the workplace include training for tolerance, rewarding diversity efforts, changing employee attitudes toward diversity, and developing supportive personnel policies.
focus on management diversity awareness at celanese
Focus on Management:Diversity Awareness at Celanese
  • Ernest Drew, the former CEO of Celanese, became an advocate of a more diverse workforce while attending a conference for Celanese’s top 125 officers, mostly white men, who were joined by about 50 lower-level women and minorities.
  • The group split into problem-solving teams, some mixed by race and sex and others all white and male, to address questions relating to Celanese’s corporate culture.
  • When the teams presented their findings, one thing seemed clear to Drew. “It was so obvious that the diverse teams had the broader solutions. … For the first time, I realized that diversity is a strength as it relates to problem solving.”
  • As a result, Drew made Celanese a pioneer in attracting, retaining, and promoting women and minorities.
training for tolerance
Training for Tolerance
  • Firms are adopting many approaches toward training for tolerance.
  • At Celanese, the top 26 officers are each required to join two organizations in which they are a minority.
  • Firms are also providing training to integrate sexual orientation into ongoing diversity efforts.
  • Many firms are “gender training” to promote tolerance between the sexes.
rewarding diversity efforts
Rewarding Diversity Efforts
  • Some firms are tying performance appraisal to their efforts to increase diversity.
  • At Celanese, attainment of workforce diversity is one of four sets of outcomes that are equally weighted in performance appraisals.
  • Coca-Cola’s then chairman and CEO, Douglas Daft, announced in 2000 that he would tie his own compensation and that of others throughout the management ranks to diversity goals and would create an executive position for promoting minorities.
changing employee attitudes toward diversity
Changing Employee Attitudes Toward Diversity
  • Companies are using a variety of innovative approaches to develop more positive employee diversity-related attitudes and skills.
  • US WEST Dex trains its employees via a three-day diversity awareness workshop.
  • US WEST Dex also uses “resource groups,” volunteer-driven meetings that address the concerns of particular employees, such as women, blacks, Hispanics, gays, and lesbians; all employees are encouraged to attend.
focus on management diversity seminars at rohm haas texas inc
Focus on Management: DiversitySeminars at Rohm & Haas Texas Inc.
  • At Rohm & Haas cross-functional teams are part of total quality efforts and were selected to take advantage of the variety of experiences and perspectives offered by diversity.
  • However, as positions opened up on other teams, employees began to migrate to teams composed of members with whom they felt they had more in common; African American employees, for example, would apply for teams with more African American members.
  • Rohm & Haas launched five-hour awareness seminars that stressed the benefits of diversity and focused on tension that any kind of difference creates.
  • 95% of employees participated, and the company credits the seminars with getting its quality efforts back on track.
developing personnel policies that support diversity
Developing Personnel PoliciesThat Support Diversity
  • AT&T, which has announced major job cuts every year since 1990, monitors workforce reduction by department and finds creative ways to keep valued workers, regardless of their gender or color.
  • Workers may be retrained for work elsewhere in AT&T or assigned to the in-house temporary agency and loaned out to various departments until permanent jobs are found for them.
  • AT&T also offers valued laid-off employees an “enhanced leave of absence” in which the employee takes two years off to go to school or travel, with full benefits and assurance of reemployment at the same level and pay if a job in the company is available upon return.
the bottom line developing a diversity program

Develop a

Definition of

What Diversity

Means in the


Identify Specific

Objectives for the



Develop the

Elements of the

Program That


Diversity Goals

Foster a



Supports the



Evaluate the


Program and

Modify as






Educate All







Measures of

the Diversity



The Bottom Line: Developing aDiversity Program

Obtain the

Support of Top


understanding personality
Understanding Personality
  • Personality is the organized and distinctive pattern of behavior that characterizes an individual’s adaptation to a situation and endures over time.
  • The distinctive character of personality allows us to tell people apart.
  • The enduring character of personality permits us to recognize people and to anticipate their behaviors.
  • Personality determines how people respond to new situations and interact with others, whether they can work on their own, and much else.
aristotle s challenge
Aristotle’s Challenge

Anyone can become angry -- that is easy.

But to be angry with the right person, to

the right degree, at the right time, for the

right purpose, and in the right way --

this is not easy.

ARISTOTLE, The Nichomachean Ethics


In The Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle

presented a challenge to manage our

emotional life with intelligence. Our

passions, when well exercised, have

wisdom; they guide our thinking, our

values, our survival. The question is,

how can we bring intelligence to our


the marshmallow test
The Marshmallow Test
  • Children at age 4 were given an IQ test and the “Marshmallow Test.” With the Marshmallow Test, the child is given a marshmallow and told that if s/he can put off eating it until later, s/he can have two.
  • Twelve to fourteen years later, reaction to this moment of impulse was twice as powerful a predictor as IQ of how children did on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. It also predicted adjustment, popularity, confidence, and dependability.
is iq enough
Is IQ Enough?
  • Most experts now agree that IQ scores are heavily influenced by a relatively narrow range of linguistic and math skills.
  • So, IQ taps only a small part of the structure of intellect.
  • The skills tapped by IQ tests may be relevant to classroom performance but less so as life’s path diverges from academe.
  • This suggests the need to take a broader view of intelligence.
how do people describe an intelligent person
How Do People Describe An “Intelligent” Person?
  • Solves problems well
  • Displays interest in the world at large
  • Accepts others for what they are
  • Admits mistakes
  • Is goal oriented
  • Converses well

Together, these suggest that people focus on the practical and worldly side of intelligence, rather than just on “academic” intelligence.

some forms of intelligence howard gardner frames of mind




Some Forms of Intelligence(Howard Gardner -- Frames of Mind)
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Linguistic
  • Bodily-kinesthetic
  • Visual-spatial
  • Musical
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist
personal intelligences
Personal Intelligences
  • Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand other people: what motivates them, how they work, how to work cooperatively with them.
  • Intrapersonal intelligence is the capacity to form an accurate model of oneself and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life.
what is emotional intelligence

“Emotional intelligence is a phrase for a different way of being smart. It’s not the usual way of thinking about it -- academic smarts -- IQ -- it’s how you do in life, how you manage yourself, your feelings, how you get along with other people, whether you’re empathic, how well motivated you are.”

Daniel Goleman, author

Emotional Intelligence

What Is Emotional Intelligence?
two brains

The amygdala is deep within the most

elemental parts of the brain.

Two “Brains”
  • The amygdala -- the “emotional brain,” the source of emotional life
  • The neocortex -- the “thinking cap,” source of planning, learning, and memory
questions calling for eq
Questions Calling for EQ
  • Should you trust a coworker with a confidence?
  • Is a friend on the verge of a nervous breakdown?
  • How should you behave in an escalating argument?
  • How should you respond to a racist joke?
why care about emotional intelligence
Why Care About Emotional Intelligence?
  • The emotional brain may “highjack” the rational brain. Fear, rage, and jealousy may prevent us from rationally addressing problems.
  • EQ is especially important in higher-level jobs, including leadership roles. While technical skills may suffice in lower-level positions, the ability to deal with others becomes critical as we advance in organizations.
  • EQ is critical for working in groups.
  • EQ is needed to effectively manage diversity.
  • EQ helps us adapt to new situations.
key emotional intelligence abilities
Key Emotional Intelligence Abilities
  • Self-Awareness -- Recognizing an emotion as it engulfs us;
  • Emotion Management -- Controlling reactions to emotion-laden events so that our response fits the situation;
  • Self-Motivation -- Directing emotions in service of a desirable goal;
  • Empathy -- Recognizing emotions in others;
  • Relationship Management -- Managing the emotions in others.
some consequences of eq
Some Consequences of EQ

In business settings, EQ has been found to be related to:

  • leadership ability
  • group performance
  • individual performance
  • interpersonal/social exchange
  • change management skills
  • ability to conduct performance appraisals
multiple intelligences at saturn corp
Multiple Intelligences at Saturn Corp.
  • At Saturn Corp., all 10,000 employees are required to take 92 hours of instruction each year.
  • They first learn about the multiple intelligences.
  • They then select courses of their choosing, such as safety or leadership.
  • Instructors adapt multiple-intelligence training to the programs. They might, for instance, use music to enhance technical training courses.
personality theories
Personality Theories
  • Some early personality theories saw behavior as being related to innate traits, such as independence, sociability, and humility. These traits were felt to be stable, enduring, and interrelated. The unique combination of these traits was seen as a clue to personality.
  • According to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, we are motivated by drives or instincts. We may be unaware of these drives, and they are largely outside our control.
personality theories continued
Personality Theories (Continued)
  • Humanistic-existential theories focus on the total personality of the individual rather than on the separate behaviors that make up the personality. They emphasize striving for awareness and fulfillment of human potential.
  • Learning theories see personality as a set of patterns of learned behaviors. That is, personalities differ because people have different experiences in childhood and throughout life.
  • Together, the approaches provide a variety of potentially useful perspectives for examining and predicting human behavior.
some key personality dimensions



The “Big 5”

Type A and

Type B








Tolerance for


Locus of


Some Key Personality Dimensions


risk taking propensity
Risk-Taking Propensity
  • People differ markedly in their risk-taking propensity.
  • Some are risk averse; they like to “play it safe,” choosing alternatives that are likely to give a relatively low but certain return.
  • Others -- risk seekers -- like to gamble. They prefer alternatives that may turn out very well or very poorly.
  • Risk seekers tend to make fast decisions based on relatively little information.
proactive personality
Proactive Personality
  • Proactivity is the extent to which people take actions to influence their environments/
  • Proactive individuals look for opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until they are able to bring about change.
  • Proactive individuals have been shown to engage in high levels of entrepreneurial activities and to have relatively high levels of job performance.
  • This is a trait that is highly valued by employers.
  • Authoritarianindividuals believe that power and status should be clearly defined and that there should be a hierarchy of authority.
  • They feel that authority should be concentrated in the hands of a few leaders and that this authority should be obeyed.
  • Authoritarian leaders expect unquestioning obedience to their commands.
  • Authoritarian subordinates willingly give obedience.
  • Authoritarian individuals are likely to be comfortable in organizations that emphasize rules and the chain of command.
  • Dogmaticindividuals are closed-minded.
  • They have rigid belief systems and “doggedly” stick to their opinions, refusing to revise them in the face of conflicting evidence.
  • Dogmatic individuals make decisions quickly, based on relatively little information, and are confident in their decisions.
  • They like to follow the rules and are unlikely to consider novel alternatives.
  • They may perform acceptably in well-defined, routine situations, but do poorly in situations requiring creativity.
locus of control
Locus of Control
  • Locus of control is an indicator of an individual’s sense of control over the environment and external events.
    • A person with an internal locus of control feels in control of his or her life.
    • A person with an external locus of control feels controlled by fate, chance, and circumstance.
  • Internals are generally more highly motivated than externals.
  • Leaders who are internal tend to choose more innovative strategies and to be more proactive and future oriented.
tolerance for ambiguity
Tolerance for Ambiguity
  • Individuals with high tolerance for ambiguity welcome uncertainty and change.
  • Those with low tolerance for ambiguity see such situations as threatening and uncomfortable.
  • Since managers are increasingly facing dynamic, unstructured situations, tolerance for ambiguity is clearly an important characteristic.


  • Machiavellians:
    • think any behavior is acceptable if it achieves their goals
    • try to manipulate others
    • are unemotional and detached
    • “look out for Number One”
    • aren’t likely to be good team players
    • are relatively likely to be unethical
web wise machiavelli s the prince
Web Wise: Machiavelli’s The Prince
  • The term Machiavellian comes from Niccolo Machiavelli, author of The Prince. Machiavelli wrote The Prince as a practical guide for the ruling Medici family on how to deal with the problems a monarch faces in staying in power.
  • The main theme of the book is that princes should retain absolute control of their territories and should use any means necessary to accomplish this end, including deceit.
  • The book has caused Machiavelli’s name to become synonymous with self-serving, manipulative, deceitful behavior.
self monitoring
  • Self-monitoring is a person’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  • High self-monitors:
    • are very sensitive to external cues and are “chameleon-like.”
    • can present striking contradictions between their public and private lives -- are capable of “disguise.”
    • are effective in “boundary role” situations and other situations requiring multiple “faces.”
  • High self-monitors are more likely to assume leadership roles than low self-monitors
type a and type b
Type A and Type B
  • Type Aindividuals:
    • feel great time pressure and impatience.
    • work aggressively, speak explosively, and find themselves constantly struggling.
  • Type B individuals show the opposite pattern -- relaxed, steady-paced, and easygoing.
  • Type A individuals:
    • are much more likely than Type B’s to experience high stress levels and associated symptoms, including coronary heart disease.
    • have trouble delegating responsibility to others, don’t work well in groups, and are impatient with tasks requiring prolonged problem solving.
  • Relatively few Type A’s rise to high levels in organizations.
the big 5 model
The “Big 5” Model
  • Extraversion: Sociable, talkative, assertive
  • Agreeableness: Good-natured, cooperative, trusting
  • Conscientiousness: Responsible, dependable, persistent, achievement oriented
  • Emotional Stability: Calm, enthusiastic, secure
  • Openness to Experience: Imaginative, artistically sensitive, intellectual
the big 5 and performance
The “Big 5” and Performance
  • Extraverts tend to take on leadership roles.
  • Agreeableness is especially significant in careers where teamwork or customer service is important.
  • Conscientious individuals have high levels of job performance.
  • Openness to experience is related to performance in training programs.
why care about globalization
Why Care About Globalization?
  • You are likely to spend part of your career in other countries.
  • According to Andrew Grove, with globalization “every employee will compete with every person in the world who is capable of doing the same job. There are a lot of them, and many of them are very hungry.”
  • You may suddenly find yourself working for a foreign firm.
  • Your firm -- and your job -- will increasingly depend on international trade.
  • You will be managing a culturally diverse workforce even if you never leave the U.S.
diversity on the new york yankees
Diversity on the New York Yankees
  • During the 1998 season New York Yankees pitching coach Mel Stottlemeyer did a masterful job of overseeing one of the most international pitching staffs in major league baseball.
  • The staff included Graeme Lloyd from Australia, Orlando “El Duque” Hernandez from Cuba, Hideki Irabu from Japan, and Ramiro Mendoza and Mariano Rivera from Panama.
  • They led the Yankees to 114 wins, the most in American League history.
the hofstede framework
The Hofstede Framework
  • Geert Hofstede, a Dutch researcher who worked as a psychologist for IBM, studied 116,000 people working in 64 countries.
  • He identified five important dimensions on which national cultures differ.
the hofstede framework49



Individualism vs.


Quality Versus

Quantity of Life





The Hofstede Framework



individualism and collectivism
Individualism and Collectivism
  • Individualismrefers to a loosely knit social framework in which people are chiefly supposed to look after their own interests and those of their immediate family. The society offers individuals a great amount of freedom.
  • Collectivismrefers to a tight social framework in which people expect other groups to which they belong to look after them and protect them in times of trouble. In exchange for security, they offer loyalty. “The nail that sticks out will be pounded down.”
  • Individualistic countries include Australia, the U.S., Great Britain, and the Netherlands. Collectivist countries include Columbia, Pakistan, Venezuela, Peru, and Taiwan.
power distance
Power Distance
  • Power Distance is the degree to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
    • A high-power-distance society accepts wide differences in power in organizations. Employees show great respect for authority, titles, status, and rank. Titles are important in bargaining.
    • A low-power-distance society plays down inequalities as much as possible.
  • High-power-distance countries include the Philippines, Mexico, and India. Low-power-distance countries include Denmark, Israel, and Ireland.
uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance refers to the way societies deal with uncertainty.
    • In low-uncertainty-avoidance countries people are relatively comfortable with risks, and are more tolerant of behavior and opinions that differ from their own.
    • In high-uncertainty-avoidance countries, there is a high level of anxiety among the people.
      • Formal rules and other mechanisms are created to provide security and reduce risk.
      • There is less tolerance of deviant ideas and behaviors.
      • Members strive to believe in absolute truths.
  • Low-uncertainty-avoidance countries include Switzerland & Denmark. High-uncertainty-avoidance countries include Japan & Greece.
quality versus quantity of life
Quality Versus Quantity of Life
  • Some cultures emphasize the quantity of life and value assertiveness and the acquisition of money and natural things.
  • Some cultures emphasize the quality of lifeand the importance of relationships, and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of others.
  • Japan and Austria score high on quantity of life. Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland score high on quality of life.
time orientation
Time Orientation
  • A long-term orientation is derived from values of thrift (saving) and persistence in achieving goals.
  • A short-term orientation is derived from values that express a concern for maintaining personal stability or happiness and living for the present.
  • Japan and Hong Kong have a long-term orientation, while France and Indonesia have a short-term orientation.
high context and low context cultures
High-Context and Low-Context Cultures
  • Another key factor is whether cultures are high or low context.
  • In a high-contextculture, such as most Asian, Hispanic, African, and Arab countries, the context in which communication occurs is just as important as the words that are actually spoken, and cultural clues are important in understanding what is being communicated. The context includes the social setting, use of phrasing, gestures, and tone of voice, and the person’s history and status.
  • In a low-contextculture, such as Germany and the U.S., the words used by the speaker explicitly convey the speaker’s message to the listener.
context and nonverbal communications
Context and Nonverbal Communications
  • Nonverbal communications are especially important in high-context cultures. Most immigrants to the U.S. are now coming from high-context cultures.
  • Nonverbal communications have dramatically different meanings across cultures. For example:
    • Nodding your head means “Yes” in most countries but “No” in Bulgaria and Greece.
    • The classic “OK” sign of thumb and forefinger forming a circle can imply “money” in Japan, means “worthless” in France, and is considered an obscene gesture in Brazil, Germany, and Russia.
    • In Saudi Arabia, to cross your legs in such a way as to display the sole of your foot to your host is a grievous affront.
    • Americans expect eye contact in a conversation, but Hispanics consider eye contact, especially with a superior, to be disrespectful.
the bottom line managing cross cultural differences

Maintain a Flexible

and Open-Minded

Attitude to

Managing People


Respect for


Differences in


Be Sensitive to How

Others May Have


Interpretations of

Your Statements

and Actions

Discuss Misunderstandings

or Conflicts that Occur Due to

Cross-Cultural Differences

in Order To Enhance Mutual


The Bottom Line:Managing Cross-Cultural Differences

Develop an

Understanding of

the Cultural Beliefs

and Practices

of Others

maintaining accurate perceptions
Maintaining Accurate Perceptions
  • We all live in our own world.
  • It is a world created by our attempts to sift through, to organize, and to interpret the tremendous number of things we see, hear, feel, and otherwise constantly sense.
  • It is different from all other worlds -- the unique product of a complex process.
  • The “truth” in our world depends on whether something is consistent with the rest of that world.
  • The nature of our unique world helps determine how we behave.
the perceptual process
The Perceptual Process
  • Perception is the complex process by which we select, organize, and interpret sensory stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.
  • The perceptual process involves several steps, including sensation, selection, organization, and translation.
  • In the first step, sensation, many stimuli impact on our sensory filters, but only some are sensed. Others are filtered out, perhaps because they are at very low levels or are not in a particular range.
the perceptual process figure 2 2






Reaction to




of Stimuli

Placement of


Stimuli into a


for Storage


of Stimuli

The Perceptual Process(Figure 2-2)


selecting stimuli
Selecting Stimuli
  • If our perceptions were not selective, we would be overwhelmed.
  • Many factors affect selection, some of which are potentially troublesome.
  • Perceptual readiness causes us to see things we expect to see.
  • Different people will select stimuli based on their needs and personalities.
  • Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding environment are more likely to be selected.
  • Repetition of a stimulus makes it more likely to be perceived.
organizing stimuli
Organizing Stimuli
  • Once stimuli have been selected, they must be organized in a useful framework.
  • Things we group together tend to be recalled together, and their meanings tend to influence one another.
  • In general, we are likely to group things that are somehow similar.
  • We tend to organize things so closure occurs. That is, we “close up” or “fill in” missing parts to create a meaningful whole.
interpreting stimuli
Interpreting Stimuli
  • We interpret stimuli at the translation step of the perceptual process.
  • The way we interpret the stimuli we have selected and organized depends on the situation, our characteristics, and the characteristics of the thing being perceived.
  • Many distortions of objective reality are possible at the translation stage. Some of these, such as the Hering illusion, are simply due to quirks in the way our senses work.
  • Other distortions are more subtle but no less important. These include stereotyping, Pygmalion effect, halo effect, projection, primacy/recency effects, and perceptual defense.
the hering illusion figure 2 4
The Hering Illusion(Figure 2-4)

The “Hering Illusion” illustrates a quirk in the way our senses work. Two parallel lines appear curved because of the nature of their background.

  • Walter Lippmann coined the term stereotyping in 1922, describing stereotypes as “pictures in people’s heads” that distorted their perceptions of others.
  • The term is now often used to mean the forming of an opinion of people based on group membership.
  • Stereotyping, if accurate, may be useful since it efficiently places information into categories. When we face new situations, stereotypes provide guidelines to help classify people.
  • Unfortunately, stereotyping may lead to a distorted view of the situation if stereotyping is based on false premises.
  • Stereotyping in work organizations may be harmful to minority group members, older workers, and females.
pygmalion effect

Pygmalion and Galatea

Pygmalion Effect
  • Pygmalion effect refers to creating something in the image we have of it.
  • It is a prime example of self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • Teachers, managers, and others often demonstrate this effect.
  • For instance, teachers who were told that certain students were especially intelligent (when, in fact, they were not) later perceived those students to show signs of greater intelligence and higher performance. As a result, they treated them differently. These “intelligent” students then showed gains in intellectual capacity, while others did not.
halo effect
Halo Effect
  • Halo Effectrefers to a process in which a judge uses a general impression that is favorable or unfavorable (a “horns effect”) to evaluate specific traits.
  • Sometimes one trait, such as a subordinate’s enthusiasm, forms the halo.
  • So, if the boss feels the subordinate is enthusiastic, he or she may also see the subordinate as loyal, efficient, courteous, and so on.
  • If we make evaluations on the basis of a halo and the traits aren’t really linked, the result is halo error.
other perceptual distortions
Other Perceptual Distortions
  • Projectionis the tendency to project our own characteristics on others. For instance, if we feel fearful, we may perceive others as fearful. People with traits such as stinginess or obstinacy tend to rate others as relatively high on these traits.
  • Primacy/Recency Effects. We give especially heavy weight to stimuli we receive early (a primacy effect) or recently (a recency effect). Intermediate stimuli receive less weight.
  • Perceptual Defense. When we face information we find to be threatening or unacceptable, our perceptions try to defend us. We may fail to perceive the troublesome stimuli, or we may distort our perceptions of the stimuli to make them less troublesome.
implicit theories
Implicit Theories
  • Implicit theories are theories in people’s minds.
  • For instance, we may believe that jobs offering more challenge also offer more authority. Or we may believe that leaders who let their subordinates participate more in decision making also care more about their subordinates.
  • These implicit theories may be correct or incorrect.
  • Implicit theories may influence perceptions at the selection, organization, and translation stages.
  • For instance, if we see evidence concerning one element of the theory, we are likely to perceive other elements also.
causal attribution
Causal Attribution
  • Causal attributionis the process of forming perceptions about the causes underlying others’ behaviors.
  • Causal attribution may be especially important to determine whether the behaviors were the result of internal factors, such as the person’s motives or traits, or of external factors, such as luck or the situation.
causal attribution cont
Causal Attribution (Cont.)
  • According to attribution theory, we try to sort out the causes of an individual’s behavior by considering three factors:
    • Did others act the same way in the same situation?
    • Does this person always act this way in this situation?
    • Does this person act differently in other situations?
  • This process is prone to error. For instance, we tend to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors, even when this is not appropriate. Also, self-serving bias -- the tendency to take credit for successes and deny personal responsibility for failures -- is often seen.
focus on management attribution theory at boots the chemist
Focus on Management:Attribution Theory at Boots the Chemist
  • Boots the Chemist, a British pharmaceutical firm, wanted a test to select potential sales assistants.
  • It developed a new questionnaire based on attribution theory.
  • It was predicted -- and shown in subsequent research -- that the most successful sales performers and those rated most highly for their customer care would be more likely to attribute outcomes to controllable factors, such as their own effort or choice of sales strategies.
  • The questionnaire is now used in the selection process for sales assistants and to help identify developmental needs.
reducing perceptual errors
Reducing Perceptual Errors
  • People who are aware of their own characteristics make fewer errors in perceiving others and are less likely to see the world in black-and-white terms.
  • People who are able to accept themselves as they are can see a wider range of characteristics in others and may be less prone to projection.
  • Simple knowledge of such tendencies as halo error, stereotyping, and self-serving bias may help to avoid them.
  • It is important to make a conscious effort to attend to relevant information and to test reality.
the bottom line increasing perceptual accuracy

Maintain an Open-

Minded Attitude

and Do Not Jump

to Conclusions


Be Aware of Your

Own Biases and

Assumptions in

Trying to

Understand the


Meet with the Parties

Involved as a Group

to Develop a Mutual

Understanding of

the Issues at Hand

Formulate Your

Overall View

of the Situation

Develop an

Understanding of

How Others View

the Situation from

Their Perspectives

The Bottom Line:Increasing Perceptual Accuracy

Talk to All Parties

Involved in the


Individually --

Emphasize Obtaining

Objective Information


Attitudesare the beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies held by a person about an object, event, or person (called the attitude object).

the components of attitudes
The Components of Attitudes
  • The cognitive component of attitudes is our cognitions, or beliefs about the facts pertaining to the attitude object. This is descriptive information rather than liking or intentions.
  • The affective component of attitudes is made up of our feelings toward the attitude object. The affective component involves evaluation and emotion.
  • The behavioral tendency component of attitudes is the way we intend to behave toward the attitude object.
why care about attitudes
Why Care About Attitudes?
  • Attitudes may influence work behaviors, such as turnover or absenteeism.
  • Attitudes may influence things of direct concern to the employee, such as stress levels, ability to sleep, and attitudes toward other aspects of life.
  • Attitudes are important for their own sake, independent of their consequences. Employees spend half their waking lives at work.
some potential relationships of attitudes to behaviors figure 2 6















Some Potential Relationships of Attitudes to Behaviors (Figure 2-6)
job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction
  • Job satisfactionis the affective component of work-related attitudes.
  • Quite simply, it is how employees feel about their jobs.
  • Managers may be concerned about employees’ satisfaction with specific facets of the job, as well as about their overall job satisfaction.
job facet satisfaction and overall satisfaction figure 2 7


With Promotions


With Coworkers


With Pay


With Supervision


With Work Itself

Job Facet Satisfaction and Overall Satisfaction (Figure 2-7)

Overall Job


measuring job satisfaction
Measuring Job Satisfaction
  • Measuring job satisfaction provides information concerning what is, and isn’t, being done correctly in the workplace.
  • The most popular approach to measuring job satisfaction is to use standardized scales. They have been widely used and tested, and norm data are often available.
  • The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is the best-known scale to measure facets of job satisfaction.
  • It is often helpful to assess overall job satisfaction as well.
measuring job satisfaction cont
Measuring Job Satisfaction (Cont.)
  • In addition to paper-and-pencil tests, satisfaction may be assessed by use of the critical incidents method, interviews, or confrontation meetings.
  • The critical incidents method as applied to measuring job satisfaction asks employees to recall incidents that were particularly satisfying or dissatisfying to them.
  • Interviews allow in-depth questioning about the nature and causes of sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
  • Confrontation meetings bring together groups of employees who are encouraged to openly express their feelings about their jobs.
job descriptive index supervision subscale sample items figure 2 8
Job Descriptive Index: Supervision Subscale Sample Items (Figure 2-8)
  • The following adjectives and phrases describe five aspects of a job: the work itself, supervision, pay, promotions, and coworkers. Carefully consider each adjective or phrase and indicate whether or not it is true of your job by circling:
  • Y for YES, this is true of my job.
  • ? for I cannot decide if this is true of my job.
  • N for NO, this is not true of my job.
  • The Supervision on My Job
      • Asks my advice …………………… Y ? N
      • Hard to please …………………….. Y ? N
      • Impolite …………………………….. Y ? N
      • Influential …………………………... Y ? N
      • Stubborn …………………………… Y ? N
      • Knows job well ……………………. Y ? N
determinants of job satisfaction
Determinants of Job Satisfaction
  • There are two primary views of the determinants of job satisfaction -- situational and dispositional.
  • The situational perspective sees satisfaction as largely due to things in the environment of the employee, such as the nature of the job, reward system and supervision. If this view is correct, it may be possible to influence satisfaction levels by changing such things.
  • The dispositional perspective sees satisfaction as due to individual factors -- some people are simply more satisfied in general than are others -- and thus as relatively stable and more difficult to change. If this view is valid, varying the situation may have little impact on satisfaction.
situational determinants of satisfaction
Situational Determinants of Satisfaction
  • Many work-related factors influence job satisfaction (see Figure 2-9).
  • Among these, equitable rewards, work itself, and others in the organization (such as the supervisor) are quite important.
  • We examine the specific roles of many of these factors in later chapters.
dispositional determinants of satisfaction
Dispositional Determinants of Satisfaction
  • A direct approach to examining the dispositional perspective is simply to measure the degree to which people seem to be generally positive or negative in their outlooks.
  • These are called positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Research consistently shows these measures to predict levels of job satisfaction.
  • The dispositional view is also supported by studies that follow people as they move across jobs through their lives; one study found overall attitudes to be quite stable over a period of nearly 50 years.
  • Another interesting approach to examining the dispositional view looks at identical twins reared apart. One famous study found identical twins reared apart to have considerable similarity in satisfaction levels despite different jobs.
the bottom line enhancing employee job satisfaction

Identify Job Facets

with Which

Employees are

Highly Satisfied or

Highly Dissatisfied

Develop an Under-

standing of the

Underlying Causes of

the Employees’

Satisfaction or


Implement the


Develop Strategies

for Maintaining

Satisfaction with

Job Facets for

Which Employees

Are Now Satisfied

Develop Strategies

for Enhancing

Satisfaction with Job

Facets for Which

Employees are Not

Currently Satisfied

The Bottom Line:Enhancing Employee Job Satisfaction

Assess Employee

Satisfaction with

Various Job Facets

job involvement
Job Involvement
  • Job involvement is the degree to which employees really are involved with -- that is, “get into” -- their jobs. Job involvement is high when the job is very important in the person’s life and central to the person’s self-concept.
  • Statements reflecting high job involvement include:
    • The most important things that happen to me involve my job.
    • The major satisfaction of my life comes from my job.
    • I live, eat, and breathe my job.
  • Companies want their employees to be involved in their jobs, but overly high levels of job involvement may be undesirable.
  • Work involvement relates to work in general rather than the specific job.
work involvement across cultures
Work Involvement Across Cultures
  • Americans work longer hours and take less leisure time off than peoples of other advanced nations.
  • The average hours worked per year in 2001 were:
    • 1,877 in the United States
    • 1,840 in Japan
    • 1,708 in Great Britain
    • 1,596 in France
    • 1,480 in Germany
organizational commitment
Organizational Commitment
  • Organizational commitment reflects the degree to which the employee shows:
    • (1) a strong desire to remain as a member of the organization
    • (2) a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization
    • (3) a belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goals of the organization.
organizational commitment cont
Organizational Commitment (Cont.)
  • Affective commitmentis an emotional attachment characterized by strong affective ties to the organization and psychological identification with it. It flows from liking the firm, sharing its values, and caring about its fate.
  • Continuance commitment results from consideration of the benefits of organizational membership and the perceived costs of leaving. It flows from the belief that one needs to stay with the firm since better alternatives are lacking.
  • High levels of organizational commitment, while generally desirable, may cause poor-performing employees to be reluctant to leave, may stifle dissent, and may even lead to illegal or unethical acts.
real and expressed attitudes
Real and Expressed Attitudes
  • People’s expressed attitudes may differ dramatically from their true attitudes.
  • People may hide or falsely report their true attitudes because they feel the attitudes may be unpopular or somehow lead to retribution.
  • Further, they may attempt to disguise their emotions, since emotions reflect attitudes.
  • In many cases, employees are required to express certain emotions as part of their work roles, such as employees who are told they must smile. As such, these employees’ smiles say nothing about their true feelings.
do attitudes cause behaviors
Do Attitudes Cause Behaviors?
  • Many researchers have found surprisingly weak links between attitudes and behaviors.
  • One reason for this is that people may have no choice but to behave in certain ways. They may, for instance, stay on jobs they hate because they have no alternatives.
  • It is important to recognize that a person’s behavior depends on many things beyond attitude, including pressures exerted by others, the nature of the job market, and personality characteristics.
  • On the other hand, research may underestimate the strength of the linkage of attitudes to behaviors if people don’t reveal their true attitudes or the measures of attitudes or behaviors are poor.
when do attitudes best predict behaviors
When Do Attitudes Best Predict Behaviors?

In general, attitudes will best predict behaviors when:

  • The attitude is specific to the behavior.
  • The attitude is potent.
  • The attitude is salient (that is, more noticeable or prominent in our attention).
  • The behavior is not constrained or subject to other influences.
some potential consequences of dissatisfaction figure 2 10

Channel off





Strike Back at

Informal Groups

Source of







Try to Minimize


Impact of




Leave the


Source of




Some Potential Consequences of Dissatisfaction (Figure 2-10)
satisfaction and turnover
Satisfaction and Turnover
  • Costs of turnover include disruption of the work process, the loss of employees with valuable skills, knowledge, and experience, and low productivity of new employees during the training period.
  • In some industries, turnover rates may exceed 100% annually. Overall, voluntary turnover rates were 20.3% in 2002.
  • Research clearly shows that more satisfied workers are less likely to leave the firm. A little over 15% of the variance in turnover is related to variance in satisfaction.
  • The relationship of satisfaction to turnover is indirect and is influenced by many pressures and factors, such as wishes of family members, feelings about the community, aversion to change, and economic conditions.
a model of the relationship of satisfaction to turnover figure 2 11


of Quitting

Intention to

Search for

New Job

Intention to




Probability of

Finding Another

Acceptable Job


A Model of the Relationship of Satisfaction to Turnover (Figure 2-11)



satisfaction and absenteeism
Satisfaction and Absenteeism
  • Absenteeism can be quite costly for companies. Typically, companies continue to pay absent employees. Also, absenteeism causes costly disruptions, such as the need to reschedule work and reassign employees.
  • One estimate is that such disruptions cause productivity to drop by as much as 2.5% for every 1% increase in absenteeism.
  • An estimated 400 million person-days are lost annually to absenteeism, at a cost of $25 billion.
  • In 2002, overall absence rates were 4.12% and absenteeism cost firms an average of $789 per employee.
  • Satisfaction and absenteeism are negatively related, though the association is not as strong as we might expect.
  • While job satisfaction may influence motivation to attend, attendance also depends on pressure to attend and ability to attend.
a model of the relationship of satisfaction to attendance figure 2 12

Ability to



to Attend


Pressure to


A Model of the Relationship ofSatisfaction to Attendance (Figure 2-12)



satisfaction and performance
Satisfaction and Performance
  • While it seems reasonable to expect that satisfied workers would be more productive, many studies show this is not the case, at least to any appreciable degree.
  • Early studies of the satisfaction - performance relationship concluded that the relationship is so low as to be negligible; a major statistical summary of previous research showed that only about 3% of the variance in performance was associated with variance in satisfaction.
  • While the traditional view of this relationship viewed satisfaction as causing performance, it may be the case that performance causes satisfaction.
satisfaction and performance continued
Satisfaction and Performance(Continued)
  • According to this view, performance levels affect the rewards people receive. If employees feel their rewards are fair, they will be satisfied. If not, they will be dissatisfied.
  • If this model is correct, why aren’t satisfaction-performance relationships stronger? Quite simply, because some companies don’t properly reward employees.
  • Most studies of the satisfaction - performance relationship have used a narrow definition of performance, such as quantity of output.
  • Research shows that broader measures of performance -- such as organizational citizenship behaviors -- are more directly caused by satisfaction.
two views of the satisfaction performance relationship figure 2 13







Equitable Rewards


Two Views of the Satisfaction-Performance Relationship (Figure 2-13)

(a) View 1: Satisfaction Causes Performance

(b) View 2: Performance Causes Satisfaction

satisfaction and work violence
Satisfaction and Work Violence
  • Workplace violence, including homicide, is increasing. Homicide is now the number-3 work-related cause of death, and is the leading cause of death for women in the workplace.
  • An estimated 1.7 million workers are injured in nonfatal workplace assaults annually and more than 1,000 are murdered.
  • Dissatisfaction does play a role in this violence. Violence is especially great in regimented settings, such as post offices, where employees feel they have no control over their work.
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have formally declared workplace homicide an epidemic.
  • Some firms, such as IBM, are training managers to recognize aggressive behavior and effectively deal with it through communication and conflict management.
satisfaction and nonwork life
Satisfaction and Nonwork Life
  • Some possible relationships of job satisfaction to satisfaction with nonwork life include:
    • Perhaps job satisfaction carries over to nonwork satisfaction (a “spillover” view).
    • Perhaps employees who are satisfied at work devote so much time and energy at work that they ignore other aspects of their lives, resulting in low satisfaction with nonwork life.
    • Perhaps employees compensate for dissatisfaction at work by focusing more on home life and finding satisfaction there.
  • Most research supports the spillover view that satisfaction in one sphere of life seems to increase satisfaction in other spheres.
the financial impact of attitudes
The Financial Impact of Attitudes
  • The area of behavioral accounting is trying to assess the financial impact of attitudes.
  • It does this by examining the costs of such behaviors as turnover and absenteeism and the strength of their links to attitudes.
  • One study used behavioral accounting to estimate the costs of absenteeism, turnover, and balancing shortages of 160 bank tellers.
  • The study concluded that moderate improvements in attitudes averaging perhaps 0.7 on a seven-point scale would yield the bank savings of $781,892, or $4,886.83 per employee.
the role of mood
The Role of Mood
  • Mood is a transient mental state or attitude, perhaps caused by something as fleeting as a sunny day, convenient parking spot, or good meal.
  • Mood can affect job satisfaction as well as behaviors.
  • People who are in a good mood do helpful things.
  • Interestingly, bad mood also often leads to helping behaviors; helping others makes us feel better about ourselves.
  • Helping softens a bad mood and sustains a good mood.
  • Important work behaviors such as prosocial behaviors may be heavily influenced by mood.
do behaviors cause attitudes
Do Behaviors Cause Attitudes?

Behaviors may cause attitudes by:

  • Dissonance reduction. Cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable situation in which we have conflicting thoughts, such as “I don’t like my job, but I stay on it.” To reduce the dissonance, we may change one or both cognitions to make them consistent. So, we may change our attitudes to make them consistent with our behaviors.
  • Consequences of behavior. Behaviors may lead to consequences that affect attitudes. For example, performance may lead to a pay increase which may lead to increased satisfaction with pay.
do behaviors cause attitudes cont
Do Behaviors Cause Attitudes? (Cont.)
  • Self-Attribution. Behaving in a certain way can lead us to make corresponding attributions about ourselves. For example, smiling (for no good reason) can apparently induce a good mood and increase willingness to laugh at humorous material. Even though we’re playing a role, we seem to internalize the attitudes and moods that maintain the role.
  • Indoctrination. Brainwashing and cult recruitment are two forms of indoctrination that have proven to be effective. In brainwashing, for instance, torture or threat may be used to cause victims to yield to their oppressors’ cause. As victims engage in the behavior and pressure is reduced, they come to infer that the behavior was voluntary, and their attitudes change accordingly.