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A / AS Psychology.. Core Studies. Developmental Psychology The study Sigmund Freud (1909). Sigmund Freud (1909). Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy . The FIVE psychosexual stages . The Oral (Birth - 1 year) The Anal (1 - 3 years) The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years)

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a as psychology core studies
A / AS Psychology.. Core Studies
  • Developmental Psychology
  • The study
  • Sigmund Freud (1909)
sigmund freud 1909

Sigmund Freud (1909)

Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy

the five psychosexual stages
The FIVE psychosexual stages
  • The Oral (Birth - 1 year)
  • The Anal (1 - 3 years)
  • The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years)
  • The Latent (6 - puberty)
  • The Genital (adulthood)
stage 3 the phallic stage age 3 5
Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stageAge 3 - 5
  • The child adopts same sex parent characteristics due to
  • The Oedipus conflict (boys)
  • The Electra conflict (girls)
summaryof oedipus conflict
SUMMARYOF OEDIPUS CONFLICT
  • Child has unconscious sexual desire for opposite sex parent
  • Fears same sex parent and may wish them out of the way
  • Fears castration (if boy)
  • Wishes for penis (if girl)
  • Adopts characteristics of same sex parent to prevent castration
in the phallic stage
In the PHALLIC stage….
  • Failure to develop normal and resolve the Oedipus / Electra conflict leads to “fixation” at phallic stage.
  • Adult symptoms of fixation at phallic stage include: homosexuality, curiosity, exhibitionism
little hans
Little Hans
  • This is the ONLY case study of a child undertaken by Freud
  • Freud’s ideas about infant sexuality were based on his work with adult women
  • (and his own self analysis)
little hans8
Little Hans
  • The CASE STUDY
  • (psychoanalytic therapy)
  • was carried out by correspondence and interviews with Hans’ father
  • First reports when Hans was three
terms used
TERMS USED
  • WIDDLER = PENIS
  • WIDDLING = PEEING
  • LUMF = FAECES (POO)
  • COAXING = CUDDLING
  • NONSENSE = FEAR OF HORSES
  • CASTRATION = HAVING PENIS CUT OFF
little hans10
Little Hans
  • Hans was interested in his ‘widdler’
  • His mother told him
  • “not to play with your widdler .. or else she would call the doctor to come and cut it off”
  • Hans’ mother threatened to leave him
little hans11
Little Hans
  • Hans’ baby sister was born - he was told the stork had brought the baby
  • Early jealousy of sister
  • Continued interest in his widdler, according to father his dreams and fantasies were of widdlers and of ‘widdling’
little hans12
Little Hans
  • Father wrote to Freud
  • “Hans is afraid of horses, afraid a horse will bite him in the street, this fear seems to be connected to his being frightened by a large penis”
little hans13
Little Hans
  • Freud & father try to make sense of what Hans was experiencing and to resolve his phobia of horses
    • Freud noted that Hans’ fear of horses developed after the child had anxiety dreams of losing his mother AND after he has been warned not to play with his widdler
little hans14
Little Hans
  • Hans dreams about a giraffe were explained as ‘fear of big penis’
      • (long neck = big penis)
  • Freud theorised that Hans’ fear of horses was really fear of father
      • Horse = symbolic for father
timeline
TIMELINE
  • VISIT THE TIMELINE TO SEE THE MILESTONES IN LITTLE HANS LIFE, AND FREUDS EXPLANATION FOR THESE.
  • CONSIDER WHAT OTHER EXPLANATIONS THER COULD BE
little hans16
Little Hans
  • Freud’s conclusion
  • Little Hans phobia of horses was really fear of father
  • (castration fear) during resolution of the Oedipus Conflict
    • Fear resolved when Oedipus conflict resolved
little hans criticisms
Little Hans: Criticisms
  • Hans is analysed by the father who is emotionally involved
  • Father is biased as he already admires the work of Freud and may have believed that the boy was in the Oedipal (phallic stage)
  • Father ‘put words into Hans’ mouth’
little hans criticisms18
Little Hans: Criticisms
  • The case study seems to be both
  • scientific evidence and treatment
  • (action research)
  • These should be separated because
  • If we ‘treat’ what we are investigating how can it remain unchanged to be investigated?
little hans criticisms19
Little Hans: Criticisms
  • BUT
  • Freud did deal with real people & their problems
  • Not neat & tidy but has
  • “ecological validity”
little hans criticisms20
Little Hans: Criticisms
  • AND unlike adult ‘case studies’
  • No searching through ‘past memory’ Hans father simply asked Hans!
little hans other explanations
Little Hans: Other explanations
  • Perhaps Hans dreams about widdlers & widdling were caused by his fear that his mother might cut off his penis?
  • But - Freud’s theory was that mothers were the primary love object of little boys, (not that Mother could be feared)
little hans other explanations22
Little Hans: other explanations
  • Learning Theory
  • Hans had seen a horse fall down in the street
  • (equivalent to road accident today)
  • He ‘learned to be’ afraid of horses!
little hans ethical issues
Little Hans - Ethical issues
  • Treatment not very child friendly
    • (and included leading questions)
    • Freud’s theory of the Oedipus/Electra conflict is proposed by some psychologists as the reason why people are reluctant to believe children who report sexual abuse
little hans ethical issues24
Little Hans - Ethical Issues
  • Hans was interviewed when he was 19
  • He had no recollection of any of the discussions - “No long term effects”
    • Hans said when he read the case study
    • “it came as something from the unknown”