Developmental Psychology Rowland High School
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Opening Activity: Identify five past events that have had an impact on yourdevelopment. In addition, hypothesize five future events that you believe will significantly affect your development.
Developmental Psychology • Developmental Psychology - branch of psychology that studies how human beings change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences. • Major Themes: • Nature versus nurture (interaction) • Continuity versus discontinuity • Stability versus change
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Studying nature versus nurture • Twin studies • Identical and fraternal • Adoption studies
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Prenatal Development • Three Stages • Zygote (10 days) • Embryo (2-8 weeks) • Differentiation • Fetus (9 weeks)
(a) (b) Life is sexually transmitted: (a) Sperm cells surround an ovum. (b) As one sperm penetrates the egg’s jellylike outer coating, a series of chemical events begins that will cause sperm and egg to fuse into a single cell. If all goes well, that cell will subdivide again and again to emerge 9 months later as a 100-trillion-cell human being..
(a) (b) (c) Prenatal development: (a) The embryo grows and develops rapidly. At 40 days, the spine is visible and the arms and legs are beginning to grow. (b) By the end of the second month, when the fetal period begins, facial features, hands, and feet have formed. (c) As the fetus enters the fourth month, its 3 ounces could fit in the palm of your hand.
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology Fetal Development
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Prenatal Development • Three Stages • Zygote (10 days) • Embryo (2-8 weeks) • Differentiation • Fetus (9 weeks) • Teratogens - prenatal toxins (mind module video) • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • The Neonatal Period • Birth to one month • Abilities: • Sight • Preferences • Reflexes • (video clips)
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Infancy and Childhood • Brain development • Neural pruning • Synchronicity (video clip)
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Attachment • Imprinting • Konrad Lorenz
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Attachment Styles • Mary Ainsworth • Types of attachment: • Secure • Avoidant • Anxious/ambivalent • “the strange situation” (video clip)
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and love partners often want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. • I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. • I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. 1. Avoidant - insecure 2. Anxious – ambivalent 3. Secure
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Contact Comfort • “cupboard theory” and Sigmund Freud • Harry and Margaret Harlow (video clip)
Social deprivation and fear: Monkeys raised with artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers. (Today’s climate of greater respect for animal welfare prevents such primate studies.
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Maturation – the process by which the genetic program manifest itself over time.
Infants can discriminate between possible and impossible objects: After habituating to the stimulus on the left, 4-month-olds stared longer if shown the impossible version of the cube—where one of the back vertical bars crosses over a front horizontal bar. Habituation is the decreasing responsiveness with repeated presentation of the same.
Schema Baby math: Shown a numerically impossible outcome, 5-month-old infants stare longer.
Checking for Understanding • List three things you learned about child development. Be prepared to share with the class.
Imagine two identical jars, with one jar containing exactly 200 red jelly beans and the other exactly 200 black jelly beans. Tell them that you are going to fill a scoop with 15 red jelly beans and pour them into the jar containing the black jelly beans. Then, you are going to shake that jar, mixing the beans. You will then scoop 15 beans (any 15) from the jar containing the black jelly beans and pour them into the jar containing the red jelly beans. • Will the number of red jelly beans in the jar that initially contained only black jelly beans be the same as the number of black jelly beans in the jar that originally contained only red jelly beans?
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory • Background • Discontinuous • Three key ideas: • Schemas
An impossible object: Look carefully at the “devil’s tuning fork.” Now look away—no, better first study it some more—and then look away and draw it. . . . Not so easy, is it? This is an impossible object; you have no schema for such an image.
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory • Background • Discontinuous • Three key ideas: • Schemas (activity) • Assimilation & accommodation
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory • Background • Discontinuous • Three key ideas: • Schemas • Assimilation & accommodation • Stages of cognitive development
The first illustration shows a bottle with some water in it. In second illustration, the bottle has been tilted. Draw a line to show how the water line would look.
Assimilation • Preoperational • Conservation • Piaget • Artificialism • Sensorimotor • Transduction • Hypothetical • Accommodation • Classification • Reversibility • Formal • Schema • Deductive • Egocentric • Animism • Concrete
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor (birth to 18 months) Preoperational (two to six) Concrete (seven to twelve) Formal egocentric theory of mind abstract thinking grasping, sucking and looking animistic thinking conservation deductive logic object permanence reversibility artificialism lack of abstract thinking centration separation anxiety irreversability means ends causality inductive logic transductive logic Reflection: What is one thing you like about Piaget’s theory and one thing you dislike? Explain your answer. Give reasons.
Object permanence Infants younger than 6 months seldom understand that things continue to exist when they are out of sight. But for this infant, out of sight is definitely not out of mind.
Piaget’s test of conservation: This preoperational child does not yet understand the principle of conservation of substance. When the milk is poured into a tall, narrow glass, it suddenly seems like “more” than when it was in the shorter, wider glass. In another year or so, she will understand that the volume stays the same.
Testing children’s theory of mind: This simple problem illustrates how researchers explore children’s presumptions about others’ mental states.
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Lev Vygotsky • Nurture (environment) • Internalization • Zone of proximal development
DEVELOPMENTAL Psychology • Critical Thinking: • Was Piaget’s theory emphasizing nature or nurture? Why?
Erikson’s Theory • Erikson’s Psycho-Social Theory • Sense of Connectedness • Sense of Independence • Identity Crisis – a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are • Ordered Share: Did you go through a identity crisis in high school? Explain.
Social Development Trust versus Mistrust: Crisis: Is the world a safe place? Ages: Birth to one year Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt: Crisis: Can I be independent? Ages : 1-2
Social Development Initiative versus Guilt: Crisis: Will I be made to feel guilty for trying new things? Ages: 3-5 Industry versus Inferiority: Crisis: Am I competent in school and with my peers? Ages: 6 to puberty Identity versus Role Confusion: Crisis: Do I know who I am and what I am going to do? Ages: Adolescence
Social Development Intimacy versus Isolation: Crisis: Can I commit to another person? Ages: Early Adulthood Generativity versus Stagnation: Crisis: Am I a productive member of society? Ages: Middle adulthood Integrity versus Despair: Crisis: Am I Ready to die? Ages: Elderly
Erikson’s Theory • Identify the stage of development using Erikson’s Theory: It’s Little League season and 3rd grader, Nathan, can’t wait! Last spring he was on Jr. Little League and he got at least two hits in every game he played. He also caught three fly balls, and won the game for the team! Nathan’s coaches, friends, and parents are looking forward to Nathan playing on the team this year. Industry versus Inferiority
Erikson’s Theory Rosemary loves when her grandchildren visit. She proudly tells them of the great times she had with raising her family and making a nice home for everyone she loves. Sometimes, she wishes she went to college and worked outside the home as her husband did, but Rosemary says, “If I did that, I probably wouldn’t have had the time to enjoy such a beautiful family!” Integrity versus Despair
Erikson’s Theory Daniel doesn’t want to wear the pajamas his mother chose for him. Instead, he STRONGLY prefers last night’s pajamas! Daniel’s mom agrees and dresses him in his selection. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Erikson’s Theory Samuel is tired of meeting women at bars, parties and dating lots of different people. Sure, it’s fun sometimes, but now he’d rather have one special person to settle down with and share his life. Intimacy versus Isolation
Erikson’s Theory Baby Christopher’s mom feeds him every three or four hours, burps him, walks with him when he is fussy, and makes sure he is dressed warmly every time he goes outside with her. Trust versus Mistrust
Erikson’s Theory Annie’s parents are doctors. Her grandparents are doctors. In fact, Annie’s parents have told her that after high school they are looking forward to her entering the same college and medical school they attended. Annie waits for just the right time to announce her plans to travel to Europe after high school to pursue her interest in drawing and painting, and to learn Italian. Identity versus Role Confusion
Erikson’s Theory Martin has been a very successful businessman for nearly 25 years. His three children are reaching adulthood. Martin decides to start a small business that provides financial advising to young people who are just staring their careers. Generativity versus Stagnation
Erikson’s Theory Timmy’s mom pours him a bowl of Cheerios and milk. She directs him to go sit at the kitchen table. Timmy reaches for the bowl of Cheerios, announcing, “I carry it!” On the way to the table, lots of milk, and cereal spill on the floor. Mom quietly cleans up the mess and thanks Timmy for his “help.” Initiative versus Guilt
Social Development • Reflection Erikson’s Theory: Which stage of the stages do you believe you are in? Why?
Adolescent Development • Historical background • 1800’s • Initiation rites (rite of passage) • Duration – puberty to financial independence • Group discussion: What types of initiation rites do American teenagers experience?
Adolescent Development • Adolescent Physical Development • Puberty • Primary sex characteristics • Secondary sex characteristics • Menarche • Spermarche