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The Awesome Magic of Learning and Memory. "Pleasure is the flower that passes; remembrance, the lasting perfume. " Jean de Boufflers. What is Memory?. Memory is at the heart of learning. It is truly the "sine qua non".

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Awesome

Magic of

Learning

and Memory

"Pleasure is the flower that passes; remembrance, the lasting perfume. "

Jean de Boufflers

slide2

What is Memory?

  • Memory is at the heart of learning. It is truly the "sine qua non".
  • Humans have memory by nature, but it shouldn't be taken for granted.
  • It can be improved by:
  • A) understanding it
  • B) training it
  • C) using techniques that maximize its potential for each individual

ISUGA 2005

slide3

The Concept of Short-term & Long-term Memory …

  • Short-term memory isn't much use in the long-term.
  • Most people forget up to 80% of what they hear unless it is transferred to long-term memory.
  • ERGO, transfer to LTM is vital.
  • So, what is needed to assure long-term memory retention? (LTMR)

ISUGA 2005

slide4

Long-term Memory depends greatly on:

  • the emotional intensity of first exposure to stimulus
  • the level of interest in & commitment to the situation or topic

if you're not interested or emotionally-stimulated

by an event, you won't remember it ….

Ergo: GET INTERESTED - GET COMMITTED

  • This shouldn't be hard - it's what we're here for ….

AND THERE'S A BONUS …..

  • InterestED people are interestING people

ISUGA 2005

slide5

BEFORE A CLASS - THE PRACTICAL STEPS

  • PREVIEW the material: read up on it in advance.
  • Prepare QUESTIONS in advance.
  • Think about possible answers to these questions - IN ADVANCE.
  • Prepare physically, be interested, ask questions.
  • Ensure you get and UNDERSTAND answers during the class; it's difficult to remember what you don't understand!
  • Recite and/or reformulate teacher's points IN YOUR OWN WORDS = NOTES.
  • Reformulation AIDS LTMR; relying solely on teacher handouts DOES NOT.
  • Get things clear FIRST TIME -> first impressions are vital -> what is learned wrongly is difficult to correct.

ISUGA 2005

slide6

OVERLEARNING

  • Don't stop practice at the point when you can perform a task; DO IT AGAIN AND AGAIN.
  • This considerably STRENGTHENS the learning.

RECITATION

  • SAYING THINGS in your own words STRENGTHENS LTMR.
  • Ergo, REFORMULATE ideas in your own words.
  • Do Q&A practice with a partner.
  • TALK TO YOURSELF; repeat foreign language material in your head ……
  • When reading, consider "VOCALIZING"; evidence suggests this aids LTMR.

ISUGA 2005

slide7

ORGANISING MATERIAL

  • The FUNNEL approach - get clear understanding of OVERALL concepts before trying to master details.
  • Go from GENERAL to SPECIFIC.
  • Using ASSOCIATION enhances LTMR; you want to learn the word "steel", so learn it along with the word "iron".
  • Group similar ideas & concepts together.
  • Use GRAPHIC as well as VERBAL input:
  • e.g. Associate a noun with a PICTURE.
  • Use MINDMAPS; don't necessarily be LINEAR.

stapler

ISUGA 2005

slide8

ACTIVE LEARNING

  • DOING, RECITING, QUESTIONING & PARTICIPATING aid LTMR
  • SITTING, LISTENING, READING & NOT PARTICIPATING DO NOT aid LTMR

REPETITION & LEARNING "HOOKS"

Practise using material you want to learn:

  • … on different occasions
  • … in different ways
  • … with different people

Each different and separate exposure to

- and practice of - material strengthens LTMR.

ISUGA 2005

slide9

TEACHING IT MAKES YOU LEARN IT BEST

  • Learn & revise with a partner, or in a study group.
  • Take turns to "teach" your partner(s) specific topics.
  • This involves you analyzing, reformulating, reciting and answering questions about the material.
  • Many people say it's not till they have had to teach something that they have fully understood it and that it all "hangs together".

ISUGA 2005

slide10

CONCLUSION

  • Some learning is automatic; much learning isn't.
  • You can improve learning with specific techniques.
  • A single exposure to input leaves little in long-term memory.
  • People who have "naturally" good memories are often those who pay attention to the above points.
  • Whatever your natural learning ability, it can be improved by focussed learning activities.

ISUGA 2005

slide12

PRONUNCIATION

  • ask teacher to repeat it
  • repeat it yourself, loudly or silently
  • exaggerate the stress
  • use it in a phrase
  • write it down with the stress pattern

What you have to do ….

Recording the stress pattern, e.g; for the word "container":

Container: o O o - conTAIner - container - container - container- container

Or indeed: conTAIner(o O o)

o O o o

Do the same with: "photographer":

ISUGA 2005

slide13

COPYING TO COMPUTER

What you have to do ….

  • GET A GOOD DICTIONARY!!
  • set up an organised system
  • use Excel or a database
  • don't write just the word itself: add synonyms, words in the same group
  • use your system regularly

ISUGA 2005

slide15

Understanding the origin of words:

Most words have a history. Knowing a word's history helps make it easier to remember. Here are some examples:

ISUGA 2005

slide16

Graphical aids to learning

to abduct a child

an abduction

to produce

production

to abduct

to conduct

to induct

to educate

to deduce

to introduce

to produce

to reduce

to seduce

to deduce

make a deduction

to seduce

a seduction

seductive

to conduct electricity

an electrical conductor

to conduct onself

good conduct

to educate

education

educative

duct

lat ducere = to lead

to induct = teach

(to introduce or

lead someone to)

to introduce

an introduction

an introductory offer

now do the

same for the latin word:

"tractare"

an air duct

as in a

ventilation system

to reduce

to make a reduction

a viaduct,

e.g. a road

over a valley

an aqueduct (which

leads water somewhere)

ISUGA 2005

platinum aluminium bronze sapphire limestone lead gold

Ordering, Sequencing, Hierarching

Here's another example …..

platinumaluminiumbronzesapphirelimestoneleadgold

emeraldraresilvermarblemasonrypreciousruby

common

iron

metals

stones

alloys

brassdiamondslate

You’re told to learn these words. How do you go about it?

ISUGA 2005

slide18

Sort your words first!!!! - Ordering, Sequencing, Hierarching ….

MINERALS

Metals

Stones

Precious

Rare

Alloys

Masonry

Common

gold

platinum

silver

aluminium

copper

iron

lead

brass

bronze

steel

diamond

emerald

ruby

sapphire

granite

limestone

marble

slate

ISUGA 2005

slide19

The Origin of words - learn the ROOTS!!

Copy and enhance this table ……… then make a table of SUFFIXES.

ISUGA 2005

slide20

Practising and Learning your words ….

Make up some practice cards to test yourself or to work with a partner, for example:

Side A

symbiosis

o o O o

Side B

the intimate living together of two

species for

mutual benefit

ISUGA 2005

slide21

Practising and Learning your words ….

Use the two column method, for example to practise words in the "tractare" family:

to take back or withdraw a statement

to retract a statement

to grow smaller

to contract

a person critical of someone else

a detractor

to remove or take out something

to extract

to take one number away from another

to subtract

person or company engaged to do a job

contractor

ISUGA 2005

general practice reinforces vocabulary learning
General practice reinforces vocabulary learning!
  • You MUST read English regularly:
  • magazines: "Time", "Business Week", "The Economist", "Asia Review" etc
  • biographies
  • novels, including crime stories
  • BBC
  • International Herald Tribune
  • CNN
  • SKY NEWS
  • TIME Magazine
  • You MUST check news websites every day:
  • You MUST try to listen to BBC Radio 4 regularly on LW 198.
  • You MUST watch TV regularly: news and other programmes, but also videos that can be borrowed ……

ISUGA 2005