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Learning and Memory Animal in Nature Behavior enhances its chance of surviving and reproduction natural selection :- a mechanism for producing behavior suited to environment condition ( adaptation ) or adaptation -- natural selection shape the behavior for state function

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animal in nature
Animal in Nature
  • Behavior enhances its chance of surviving and reproduction
  • natural selection :- a mechanism for producing behavior suited to environment condition (adaptation)
  • or adaptation -- natural selection shape the behavior for state function
  • adaptation -- may include traits with known genetic cause, also inherited potential for learning




definition of learning
Definition of Learning

“A change in the strength or probability of a behavior because of experience”

  • Only the right sort of experience counts, not something that “happen to you”
    • e.g., losing a leg does not count
  • Only the right sort of causes count
    • e.g., not sensory adaptation (eye getting used to dark
    • e.g., not fatique (muscle fatique)
form of learning
Form of Learning
  • Non - associative learning
  • Associative learning
  • Latent learning
  • Social learning
  • Taste learning
non associative learning
Non-associative Learning
  • Animal are constantly learning about the stimuli in their environment
  • simplest form of learning, learning about single event
  • 2 formsof non - associative learning
      • habituation
      • sensitization
  • A response decrement with repeated stimuli
  • primitive form of learning
  • adaptive value :- save energy and attentional resources
  • animal learn to attend to stimuli that are important to them, and to ignore stimuli that are not
  • “spontaneous recovery”
  • sensory adaptation, fatique???
  • A response increase after a new or noxious stimulus
  • e.g., loud noise -- startle animal, cause it move away from the sound
  • less stimulus - specific --> change stimulus, lead to sensitization
  • “desensitization” :- extreme reaction to specific stimulus can be sensitized --> reaction diminish
  • “desensitization” :-
    • 1st step, low level of stimulus --> habituation would occur rapidly
    • 2nd step, spontaneous recovery, then increase intensity of stimulus
associative learning
Associative Learning
  • 2 forms of associative learning
    • Classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning
    • Operant conditioning or Instrumental conditioning
  • both :- learning relation between events (E1, E2, E3, … etc)
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Involves learning about relations between 2 or more stimuli in the environment
    • E1 = a neutral stimuli
    • E2 = a “reinforcing event”
classical conditioning16
Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus“meat”

Unconditioned response“salivation”

Conditioned stimulus“light, tone, experimenter”

Conditioned stimulus“salivationight, excitement”

classical conditioning18
Classical Conditioning
  • Oxytocin in response to the the jangling of milking equipment
  • A pet animals fear reaction to the smell of veterinary hospital
  • or to the sight of a person in a white coat
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Animal learning involve learning in 2 relations
    • Stimulus - stimulus relations
    • Response - sequence relations
  • usually mean, animal learns to associate its behavior with the consequence of the behavior
    • E1 = an action
    • E2 = consequence of E1

Operant Conditioning







Eating food treat

Food treat held

in front of nose







Eating food treat

Verbal command “sit”

operant conditioning21
Operant Conditioning
  • Instrumental condition, there are 4 types of response consequence relation
    • positive reinforcement : a reward = food, social contact
    • positive punishment
    • negative reinforcement : aversive stimuli (dog trainer)
    • negative punishment

Reinforcement Staying and Punishing Nipping



(addition of stimulation)

(removal of stimulation)

Quiet praise, petting and

Food treats provided while

Maintaining sit-stay; move

ments out of position are


Collar jerks, verbral reprimands

given when ever dog moves from

sit-stay and terminated when dog

maintains stay





Physical correction(muzzle

shake, swat) or verbral

reprimands when puppy

begins to nip

Removal of interaction with owner

And cessation of play when puppy

begins to nip



latent learning
Latent Learning
  • Differs from associative learning in 2 ways
    • no survival event
    • delay expression
social learning
Social Learning
  • Learning by observation of conspecific animal
  • mechanism
    • stimulus or local enhancement
    • social facilitation or social contagion
conditioned taste aversion
Conditioned Taste Aversion
  • “bait shyness”
  • learn to avoid food that it associates illness, particularly GI
  • practical application :- LiCl was injected into sheep, resulted in a definite aversion of live or dead lamb by the coyotes
other type of learning
Other type of learning
  • “chaining” :- the performance of a series of operant response in sequence
    • many dog owners inadvertently chain obedience commands
    • with the result that the dog sits, shakes, lies down, and roll over, when owner says, “sits”
  • “discrimination learning”
  • “conceptual learning” :- highest type of learning
other type of learning29
Other type of learning
  • “imprinting” :- the special process that
    • only occur during a definite and short period of the animal’s life
    • is irreversible
    • involves an attachment to an object that will later evoke adult behavior pattern :- sexual behavior
    • involves reactions to particular object that can be generalized to all object (all human or all duck decoys)
other type of learning30
Other type of learning
  • “imprinting” :- occurs most commonly in bird and involves a following response
  • duckling follow their mother because she is the first moving object they see
  • if a red ball is the 1st moving object

- they follow that

formation and strengthening of a learned task
Formation and strengthening of a learned task
  • “shaping” :- teaching an animal an operant task
    • circus horse
    • train animal to perform complicated and relatively unnatural tricks (reinforce with foods award and reinforced for each correct response at first)
  • reinforcement schedule
    • rewarded, after every response, after every 10, 20, ... Response
    • these schedule called “fixed ratios” (FR)
    • higher FR, the faster response

The frequency with which rewards are offered is

called the reinforcement schedule

physiological basis of learning
Physiological Basis of Learning
  • Anatomy of Learning
    • hippocampus :- very important in human for consolidation (formation of long-term memory from short-term memory)
    • lose of hippocampus tissue -- impair feline learning
    • in dog, frontal lobectomy -- abolished retention of previously learned task
    • lesion of theventromedial hypothalamus -- improve learning of a conditioned avoidance in cat
biochemical of learning
Biochemical of Learning
  • Learning appears to take place in 2 stages
    • formation of short-term memory
    • consolidation (formation of long-term memory trace)
  • time required for formation of long-term memory (vary with species tested, the task learned)
  • electroconvulsion shock or anesthesia -- inhibit short-term memory
biochemical of learning37
Biochemical of Learning
  • Short-term memory is the result of following steps :-
    • the receptor act through transducing protein
    • activate amplifier enzyme e.g., adenylate cyclase
    • elevate the levels of intracellular messengers (cAMP)
    • activate protein kinase
    • modify target protein e.g., K-channel, modulating neuronal excitability and transmitter release...
biochemical of learning38
Biochemical of Learning
  • Short-term memory is the result of following steps :- (cont)
    • cytoplasmic signal (such as cAMP) generated by transmitter-mediated process --> inducer of gene expression (if signal persist long enough)
    • induced proteins of these genes (basis of long - term memory)
    • “puromycin”, inhibit protein synthesis, interfere long - term memory
sleep and learning
Sleep and Learning
  • REMS increase when an animal is learning a complex task
  • deprivation of sleep --> impairs retention of memory
comparative intelligence
Comparative Intelligence
  • Which animal species is the smartest?
  • Methods of measurement
    • brain size and intelligence
    • brain weight / body weight ratio
    • ratio decrease in order :- human 2%, cat 1%, mongrel dog 0.5%, rat 0.3%, goat 0.3%, horse 0.1%, and pig 0.05%
problems of cross species comparision
Problems of Cross-Species Comparision
  • Learning Rates
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Delayed Response Method
  • Multiple Choice Method
  • Avoidance-Response Method
  • Maze Learning
learning rates
Learning Rates
  • Measured by comparing learning rates of various species on the same task
  • the task must be physically possible for all species tested

Classical Conditioning

  • Produce leg flexion in response to the condition stimuli, the sound
  • pig were the most easily conditioned of the farm animals followed by goats, sheep and rabbits

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Pigs
    • Liddel et al., 1934 : pigs were easier to classically condition than small ruminant or rabbits
    • sex, breed and age difference
      • Durocs learn avoidance more quickly than Hampshires
      • Yorkshires perform better in a T-maze than Poland Chinas (X breed)

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Pigs (cont)
    • sex, breed and age difference
      • female perform better than male
    • operant condition
    • visual discrimination
    • pigs -- have color vision similar or slightly superior than human
    • pig can discriminate between wavelength of light differing by only 25 mm

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Dogs
    • Housebreaking
      • 1st task, all pet must learn -- voluntary control of the anal and urinary sphincters
      • immediately after meal, gastrocolic reflex increase motility of the large colon and rectum
        • result in filling the rectum --> stimulate relaxation of the smooth muscle of the external sphincters

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Dogs (cont)
    • Housebreaking
      • if dog is taken outside after meal, the condition stimulus of being put outside will soon replace the US of reflex
      • operant condition -- useful in teaching voluntary control of urination

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Cattle
    • Operant conditioning
      • trained cow to come in to be milked when automobile horn connected to a timer
      • trained cattle to come to a feeding trough when auditory stimulus was delivered to cattle from timer-activated tape record

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Cattle (cont)
    • Conditioned avoidance
      • teach cattle to defecate in gutter behind their stanchions rather on the stall floor (cattle defecate 17 time / day, average 60-80 pounds)
    • Effect of Age
      • ability to remember the location of feeder (heifer learned more quickly than older)

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Sheep and Goat
    • Thermoregulation
      • sheep learned to active a heat lamb by sticking their muzzle through a slit to break a photoelectric bream

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Horses
    • Operant Conditioning
      • training -- based on negative reinforcement
      • applying an aversive stimulus until the horse perform the response
      • try to substitute condition stimulus ; voice command, or subtle pressure from the rider’s leg, for unconditioned stimuli ; painful flick of a whip

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Horses(cont)
      • neck reining can replace direct reining
    • Observational learning in horse
      • horse vice, cribbing, are believed to be learned by observation

Learning in Domestic Animal

  • Cats
    • discrimination
    • reward
      • unlike dogs, cat will not usually perform in order to be reunited with the experimenter
      • they perform for food
    • imitation : learning by observation


  • By definition : learning implies some form of retention of experience
  • memory refers to the capacity of an organism to form lasting connections based on past experience

Theories of Memory

  • The Dynamic hypothesis

Experience, input of sensory information set up persistent electrical activity in CNS, called “reverberating circuits”

Continuously active neurons

*if neural processes cease

Forgetting occur, the bit of information is “lost”


Theories of Memory

  • Other hypothesis

Learning and Sensory input

Produce permanent changes in biochemical processes or structure within cells, *thus, memory involve structure changes


Types of Memory

1. Short - term memory

2. Long - term memory

  • Short - term memory
    • brief period immediately after learning
    • recall depends on and reflect the current pattern facility in neural circuit, that are processing experience

Types of Memory

  • Long - term memory
    • generally believed to be created by a combination of anatomical change and chemical change

Learning experience, intense and prolong

Affect proliferation and synaptic contact of axon terminal


Memory Formation

  • Short - term memory -- labile phase
  • Long - term memory -- permanent phase
  • immediate memory -- experience is stored in short - term memory, possible through neural activity alone
  • *during labile phase various types of interference

Concussion Sudden blow to head

Loss of information


Memory Formation

  • After memory trace -- physical manifestation of learning or sensory input within the CNS
  • long - term memory by processes that are apparently more chemical and structural in change in nature, the memory trace become relatively permanent
  • consolidation = conversion of short - term memories into more permanent form, “hippocampus”

Memory Formation

  • Factors that can interfere with consolidation
    • electroconvulsive shock
    • anesthesia
    • hypoxia
    • hyperthermia
    • hypercapnia
    • psychologic drugs
  • “behavioral plasticity”