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Syntax

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  1. Syntax Lecture 13: Revision

  2. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X1 X0 Y2) • Specifier • (X2  Y2 X1) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

  3. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X’  X YP) • Specifier • (XP  YP X’) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

  4. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X’  X YP) • Specifier • (XP  YP X’) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

  5. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X’  X YP) • Specifier • (XP  YP X’) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y2)

  6. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X’  X YP) • Specifier • (XP  YP X’) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP

  7. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • X-bar rules for introducing: • Complement • (X’  X YP) • Specifier • (XP  YP X’) • Adjunct • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y

  8. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory • DP analysis: an example • Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase • NP is complement • Possessor is specifier

  9. Lecture 1: X-bar theory

  10. Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation • Binary features • [±F] functional vs. thematic • [±N] nounlike vs. not nounlike • [±V] verblike vs. not verblike

  11. Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation • [-F] categories • [+N, -V] noun N • [-N, +V] verb V • [+N, +V] adjective/adverb A • [-N, -V] preposition P • [+F] categories • [+N, -V] determiner D • [-N, +V] inflection I • [+N, +V] degree adverb Deg • [-N, -V] complementiser C

  12. Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation • Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects • DP, PP, CP, , etc. • E.g. • write [DP a letter] • smile • fact [CP that the world is round] • out [PP from the cupboard] • certain [CP that I am right]

  13. Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation • All [+F] categories have only one type of complement: • D – NP • I – VP • C – IP • Deg – AP

  14. Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation

  15. Lecture 3: The Subject • The subject is odd • It can be an argument of the verb • But it isn’t in the VP • It can be meaningless • It can be underlyingly empty and moved into • E.g. passive

  16. Lecture 3: The Subject • We also find VPs with subjects • He made [VP the ice melt] • So there are two subject positions – but only one subject

  17. Lecture 3: The Subject • Solution • Subject originates inside VP • D-structure • Moves to specifier of IP • S-structure

  18. Lecture 3: The Subject

  19. Lecture 4: The complementiser system • The complementiser heads a CP • Different forces • Declarative (that/for) • Interrogative (if) • The IP is its complement • Different complements • Finite (that/if) • Infinitive (for) • Wh-phrases move to its specifier

  20. Lecture 4: The complementiser system

  21. Lecture 5:Wh-movement • Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons • A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative • A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative • But not all wh-clauses are interrogative • Relative clauses involve wh-movement • The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier • So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated

  22. Lecture 5:Wh-movement • Restrictive relative clauses • Wh-relative • The man [CP who you dislike] • that-relative • The man [CP that you dislike] • zero relative • The man [CP you dislike] • All involve wh-movement • The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives

  23. Lecture 5:Wh-movement

  24. Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects • There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject • John seems [ -- to be rich] • John wants [ -- to be rich] • They look the same, but they are not.

  25. Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects • Raising verbs • lack their own subjects • can take infinitival complements, • the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb

  26. Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects • Control verbs • have their own subjects • can take infinitival complements, • the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb

  27. Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects

  28. Lecture 7: Verb positions • They are in V when • I is a free morpheme • I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move • In negative contexts • In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP • They are in I when • I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move • They are in C when • I is a bound morpheme • I to C movement (inversion) is necessary • The subject moves to spec CP

  29. Lecture 7: Verb positions • When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme

  30. Lecture 7: Verb positions

  31. Lecture 8: Verb types 1 • Causatives • They made the ice melt • Overt free causative verb • Lexical verb does not move • They melted the ice • Covert bound causative verb • lexical verb moves to support it

  32. Lecture 8: Verb types 1 • Transitives • John may throw Bill • Theme is specifier of throw • Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do) • Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb • Agent moves to subject position • Passives • Bill may be thrown • Theme is specifier of throw • Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent • Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme • Theme moves to subject position

  33. Lecture 8: Verb types 1

  34. Lecture 9: verb types 2 • Unergative verbs • Take cognate objects • Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions • Have an agent argument

  35. Lecture 9: verb types 2 • Unaccusative verbs • Can’t take a cognate object • Can appear in there and locative inversion structures • Have a theme argument

  36. Lecture 9: verb types 2

  37. Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs • The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs • Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme • All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be) • Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb • Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en) • Be is used in all other cases

  38. Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs

  39. Lecture 11: the DP • Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals • [DP John], [DP  men] • Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP • [DP the [NP [AP very few] complaints] • Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear • [DP all [NP members of [DP the committee]]] • [DP all [NP (of) [DP the crowd]]]

  40. Lecture 11: the DP

  41. Lecture 12: adjectival phrases • Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs) • DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements • [DegP [two sandwiches] [Deg’ too [AP short of a picnic]]] • APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements • So [AP very [A’ small [PP for a giant]]] • Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, -est) • In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg

  42. Lecture 12: adjectival phrases

  43. Answers • 1 = b • 2 = d • 3 = b • 4 = a • 5 = c • 6 = d • 7 = a • 8 = c • 9 = a • 10 = b • 11 = c • 12 = a • 0-6 = 1 • 7 = 2 • 8 = 3 • 9-10 = 4 • 11-12 = 5