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Syntax

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  1. Syntax Generative Grammar Syntactic Structures Deep and Surface Structures Structural Ambiguity

  2. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously

  3. Syntax: - The arrangement of words in a sentence. - The study of rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses and sentences. - Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.

  4. Generative Grammar: A particular approach to the study of syntax - Inspired by the original work of NaomChhomsky. - Set of explicit rules

  5. Syntactic structures: - A generative grammar defines the syntactic structures of a language - The grammar will generate all the well-formed syntactic structures (e.g. sentences) of the language and will not generate any ill-formed sentences.

  6. Syntactic structures: * All and Only * : all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences will be produced. - The grammar will have a finite (limited) number of rules, but will be capable of generating an infinite number of well-formed structures. - The productivity of language would be captured within the grammar.

  7. Deep and Surface Structures: Ali broke the window The window was broken by Ali Surface superficial Deep abstract level

  8. Structural Ambiguity: Fatimah whacked a man with an umbrella Australian history teachers I saw the man with the telescope

  9. References: Chapter 9 The study of language (George Yule)