Syntax Generative Grammar Syntactic Structures Deep and Surface Structures Structural Ambiguity
Syntax: - The arrangement of words in a sentence. - The study of rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses and sentences. - Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.
Generative Grammar: A particular approach to the study of syntax - Inspired by the original work of NaomChhomsky. - Set of explicit rules
Syntactic structures: - A generative grammar defines the syntactic structures of a language - The grammar will generate all the well-formed syntactic structures (e.g. sentences) of the language and will not generate any ill-formed sentences.
Syntactic structures: * All and Only * : all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences will be produced. - The grammar will have a finite (limited) number of rules, but will be capable of generating an infinite number of well-formed structures. - The productivity of language would be captured within the grammar.
Deep and Surface Structures: Ali broke the window The window was broken by Ali Surface superficial Deep abstract level
Structural Ambiguity: Fatimah whacked a man with an umbrella Australian history teachers I saw the man with the telescope
References: Chapter 9 The study of language (George Yule)