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# Syntax - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Syntax. Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) Adjunct (X n  X n , Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X’  X YP)

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### Syntax

Lecture 13:

Revision

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X1 X0 Y2)
• Specifier
• (X2  Y2 X1)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X’  X YP)
• Specifier
• (XP  YP X’)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X’  X YP)
• Specifier
• (XP  YP X’)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X’  X YP)
• Specifier
• (XP  YP X’)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y2)

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X’  X YP)
• Specifier
• (XP  YP X’)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• X-bar rules for introducing:
• Complement
• (X’  X YP)
• Specifier
• (XP  YP X’)
• Adjunct
• (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
• DP analysis: an example
• Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase
• NP is complement
• Possessor is specifier
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
• Binary features
• [±F] functional vs. thematic
• [±N] nounlike vs. not nounlike
• [±V] verblike vs. not verblike
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
• [-F] categories
• [+N, -V] noun N
• [-N, +V] verb V
• [+N, +V] adjective/adverb A
• [-N, -V] preposition P
• [+F] categories
• [+N, -V] determiner D
• [-N, +V] inflection I
• [+N, +V] degree adverb Deg
• [-N, -V] complementiser C
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
• Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects
• DP, PP, CP, , etc.
• E.g.
• write [DP a letter]
• smile
• fact [CP that the world is round]
• out [PP from the cupboard]
• certain [CP that I am right]
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
• All [+F] categories have only one type of complement:
• D – NP
• I – VP
• C – IP
• Deg – AP
Lecture 3: The Subject
• The subject is odd
• It can be an argument of the verb
• But it isn’t in the VP
• It can be meaningless
• It can be underlyingly empty and moved into
• E.g. passive
Lecture 3: The Subject
• We also find VPs with subjects
• He made [VP the ice melt]
• So there are two subject positions – but only one subject
Lecture 3: The Subject
• Solution
• Subject originates inside VP
• D-structure
• Moves to specifier of IP
• S-structure
Lecture 4: The complementiser system
• The complementiser heads a CP
• Different forces
• Declarative (that/for)
• Interrogative (if)
• The IP is its complement
• Different complements
• Finite (that/if)
• Infinitive (for)
• Wh-phrases move to its specifier
Lecture 5:Wh-movement
• Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons
• A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative
• A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative
• But not all wh-clauses are interrogative
• Relative clauses involve wh-movement
• The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier
• So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated
Lecture 5:Wh-movement
• Restrictive relative clauses
• Wh-relative
• The man [CP who you dislike]
• that-relative
• The man [CP that you dislike]
• zero relative
• The man [CP you dislike]
• All involve wh-movement
• The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
• There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject
• John seems [ -- to be rich]
• John wants [ -- to be rich]
• They look the same, but they are not.
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
• Raising verbs
• lack their own subjects
• can take infinitival complements,
• the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
• Control verbs
• have their own subjects
• can take infinitival complements,
• the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb
Lecture 7: Verb positions
• They are in V when
• I is a free morpheme
• I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move
• In negative contexts
• In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP
• They are in I when
• I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move
• They are in C when
• I is a bound morpheme
• I to C movement (inversion) is necessary
• The subject moves to spec CP
Lecture 7: Verb positions
• When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme
Lecture 8: Verb types 1
• Causatives
• They made the ice melt
• Overt free causative verb
• Lexical verb does not move
• They melted the ice
• Covert bound causative verb
• lexical verb moves to support it
Lecture 8: Verb types 1
• Transitives
• John may throw Bill
• Theme is specifier of throw
• Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do)
• Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb
• Agent moves to subject position
• Passives
• Bill may be thrown
• Theme is specifier of throw
• Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent
• Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme
• Theme moves to subject position
Lecture 9: verb types 2
• Unergative verbs
• Take cognate objects
• Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions
• Have an agent argument
Lecture 9: verb types 2
• Unaccusative verbs
• Can’t take a cognate object
• Can appear in there and locative inversion structures
• Have a theme argument
Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs
• The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs
• Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme
• All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be)
• Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb
• Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en)
• Be is used in all other cases
Lecture 11: the DP
• Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals
• [DP John], [DP  men]
• Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP
• [DP the [NP [AP very few] complaints]
• Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear
• [DP all [NP members of [DP the committee]]]
• [DP all [NP (of) [DP the crowd]]]
Lecture 12: adjectival phrases
• Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs)
• DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements
• [DegP [two sandwiches] [Deg’ too [AP short of a picnic]]]
• APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements
• So [AP very [A’ small [PP for a giant]]]
• Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, -est)
• In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg
Answers
• 1 = b
• 2 = d
• 3 = b
• 4 = a
• 5 = c
• 6 = d
• 7 = a
• 8 = c
• 9 = a
• 10 = b
• 11 = c
• 12 = a
• 0-6 = 1
• 7 = 2
• 8 = 3
• 9-10 = 4
• 11-12 = 5