syntax
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Syntax

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Syntax - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on

Syntax. Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) Adjunct (X n  X n , Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory. X-bar rules for introducing: Complement (X’  X YP)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Syntax' - rosalyn-lynch


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
syntax

Syntax

Lecture 13:

Revision

lecture 1 x bar theory
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X1 X0 Y2)
    • Specifier
      • (X2  Y2 X1)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
lecture 1 x bar theory1
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X’  X YP)
    • Specifier
      • (XP  YP X’)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
lecture 1 x bar theory2
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X’  X YP)
    • Specifier
      • (XP  YP X’)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise
lecture 1 x bar theory3
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X’  X YP)
    • Specifier
      • (XP  YP X’)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y2)

lecture 1 x bar theory4
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X’  X YP)
    • Specifier
      • (XP  YP X’)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP

lecture 1 x bar theory5
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • X-bar rules for introducing:
    • Complement
      • (X’  X YP)
    • Specifier
      • (XP  YP X’)
    • Adjunct
      • (Xn  Xn, Ym)if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y

lecture 1 x bar theory6
Lecture 1: X-bar Theory
  • DP analysis: an example
    • Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase
    • NP is complement
    • Possessor is specifier
lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
  • Binary features
    • [±F] functional vs. thematic
    • [±N] nounlike vs. not nounlike
    • [±V] verblike vs. not verblike
lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation1
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
  • [-F] categories
    • [+N, -V] noun N
    • [-N, +V] verb V
    • [+N, +V] adjective/adverb A
    • [-N, -V] preposition P
  • [+F] categories
    • [+N, -V] determiner D
    • [-N, +V] inflection I
    • [+N, +V] degree adverb Deg
    • [-N, -V] complementiser C
lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation2
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
  • Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects
    • DP, PP, CP, , etc.
    • E.g.
      • write [DP a letter]
      • smile
      • fact [CP that the world is round]
      • out [PP from the cupboard]
      • certain [CP that I am right]
lecture 2 categories and subcategorisation3
Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation
  • All [+F] categories have only one type of complement:
    • D – NP
    • I – VP
    • C – IP
    • Deg – AP
lecture 3 the subject
Lecture 3: The Subject
  • The subject is odd
    • It can be an argument of the verb
      • But it isn’t in the VP
    • It can be meaningless
    • It can be underlyingly empty and moved into
      • E.g. passive
lecture 3 the subject1
Lecture 3: The Subject
  • We also find VPs with subjects
    • He made [VP the ice melt]
  • So there are two subject positions – but only one subject
lecture 3 the subject2
Lecture 3: The Subject
  • Solution
    • Subject originates inside VP
      • D-structure
    • Moves to specifier of IP
      • S-structure
lecture 4 the complementiser system
Lecture 4: The complementiser system
  • The complementiser heads a CP
    • Different forces
      • Declarative (that/for)
      • Interrogative (if)
  • The IP is its complement
    • Different complements
      • Finite (that/if)
      • Infinitive (for)
  • Wh-phrases move to its specifier
lecture 5 wh movement
Lecture 5:Wh-movement
  • Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons
    • A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative
    • A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative
  • But not all wh-clauses are interrogative
    • Relative clauses involve wh-movement
    • The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier
    • So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated
lecture 5 wh movement1
Lecture 5:Wh-movement
  • Restrictive relative clauses
    • Wh-relative
      • The man [CP who you dislike]
    • that-relative
      • The man [CP that you dislike]
    • zero relative
      • The man [CP you dislike]
    • All involve wh-movement
      • The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives
lecture 6 non finite clause subjects
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
  • There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject
    • John seems [ -- to be rich]
    • John wants [ -- to be rich]
  • They look the same, but they are not.
lecture 6 non finite clause subjects1
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
  • Raising verbs
    • lack their own subjects
    • can take infinitival complements,
    • the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb
lecture 6 non finite clause subjects2
Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects
  • Control verbs
    • have their own subjects
    • can take infinitival complements,
    • the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb
lecture 7 verb positions
Lecture 7: Verb positions
  • They are in V when
    • I is a free morpheme
    • I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move
      • In negative contexts
      • In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP
  • They are in I when
    • I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move
  • They are in C when
    • I is a bound morpheme
    • I to C movement (inversion) is necessary
    • The subject moves to spec CP
lecture 7 verb positions1
Lecture 7: Verb positions
  • When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme
lecture 8 verb types 1
Lecture 8: Verb types 1
  • Causatives
    • They made the ice melt
      • Overt free causative verb
      • Lexical verb does not move
    • They melted the ice
      • Covert bound causative verb
      • lexical verb moves to support it
lecture 8 verb types 11
Lecture 8: Verb types 1
  • Transitives
    • John may throw Bill
      • Theme is specifier of throw
      • Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do)
      • Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb
      • Agent moves to subject position
  • Passives
    • Bill may be thrown
      • Theme is specifier of throw
      • Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent
      • Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme
      • Theme moves to subject position
lecture 9 verb types 2
Lecture 9: verb types 2
  • Unergative verbs
    • Take cognate objects
    • Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions
    • Have an agent argument
lecture 9 verb types 21
Lecture 9: verb types 2
  • Unaccusative verbs
    • Can’t take a cognate object
    • Can appear in there and locative inversion structures
    • Have a theme argument
lecture 10 auxiliary verbs
Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs
  • The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs
  • Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme
  • All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be)
    • Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb
    • Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en)
    • Be is used in all other cases
lecture 11 the dp
Lecture 11: the DP
  • Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals
    • [DP John], [DP  men]
  • Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP
    • [DP the [NP [AP very few] complaints]
  • Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear
    • [DP all [NP members of [DP the committee]]]
    • [DP all [NP (of) [DP the crowd]]]
lecture 12 adjectival phrases
Lecture 12: adjectival phrases
  • Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs)
  • DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements
    • [DegP [two sandwiches] [Deg’ too [AP short of a picnic]]]
  • APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements
    • So [AP very [A’ small [PP for a giant]]]
  • Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, -est)
    • In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg
answers
Answers
  • 1 = b
  • 2 = d
  • 3 = b
  • 4 = a
  • 5 = c
  • 6 = d
  • 7 = a
  • 8 = c
  • 9 = a
  • 10 = b
  • 11 = c
  • 12 = a
  • 0-6 = 1
  • 7 = 2
  • 8 = 3
  • 9-10 = 4
  • 11-12 = 5
ad