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Earth and Space Science MCT Review

Earth and Space Science MCT Review

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Earth and Space Science MCT Review

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  1. Earth and Space Science MCT Review Objectives 4.a.-4.h.

  2. Objective 4.a. • Compare and contrast the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. • Advanced – 4a. Explain how the composition of the lithosphere and asthenosphere affects plate movement.

  3. Structure of the Earth • Inner Core • Solid iron and nickel core • Temperatures at 6000°C • Although temperatures are hot, it is solid due to great pressure from the above layers • Outer Core • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel

  4. Mantle • Solid layer of hot rock • Flows like a liquid because of tremendous heat and pressure. • Plastic-likemeans that the consistency of the rock is flowing but it is not a liquid • The asthenosphere is the mechanically weak deforming region of the upper mantle that is ductile, plastic, and free-flowing.

  5. Convection Currents in the Mantle

  6. Crust • Solid, rocky outer layer of Earth • Crust is thinner below the oceans than below continents. • Lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet that floats on top of the asthenosphere • Divided into plates that include ocean floor and land.

  7. Objective 4.b. • Describe the cause and effect relationship between the composition of and movement within the Earth’s lithosphere.

  8. Continental Drift Theory • Earth’s continents were once joined in a single large landmass called Pangaea that broke apart • Continents have drifted to their current location

  9. Pangaea to Present Day

  10. Theory of Plate Tectonics • Crust rides on top of the plates • Plates ride on top of mantle which is in motion due to convection currents.

  11. Two Types of Lithospheric Plates • Continental Crust: made of rocks that are less dense and ride higher on the mantle than oceanic crust. • Oceanic Crust: rocks that are more dense and ride lower on the mantle than continental crust.

  12. Plate Boundaries • Movement of Earth plates are responsible for most major geological events and landforms • Volcanoes, earthquakes, mountain formation

  13. Convergent Plate Boundaries • Boundaries that form when 2 plates collide or come together

  14. Oceanic & Continental • The more dense oceanic plate is forced below the less dense continental plate. • Oceanic plate melts as it pushes into the mantle forcing hot magma & gas up to the surface • Forms a deep-ocean trench & a long chain of continental volcanic mountains • The movement of one plate under another is called subduction.

  15. Two Continental Plates • Both plates are less dense than the asthenosphere. • Crumple up to form mountain ranges. • Earthquakes are very common but not volcanoes. • Formed the Himalaya Mountains.

  16. Two Oceanic Plates • One plate is forced down into the mantle forming a deep ocean trench that sinks & melts • The plate that sinks will melt, form volcanoes, and eventually an island arc. • Ex. Japan, Philippines, Marianas Islands

  17. Convergent Boundaries

  18. Oceanic-Continental Boundaries

  19. Divergent Plate Boundaries • Forms when 2 plates move away from each other • Most occur on the ocean floor & form undersea mountain ranges called mid-ocean ridges. • Ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge • Two divergent continental plates will form a rift valley. Ex: East African Rift

  20. Divergent Boundaries

  21. Transform Plate Boundaries • Two plates grind or slide past each other without creating or destroying the lithosphere. • Ex. North American & Pacific plates slide past each other in a north-south direction creating earthquakes.

  22. Seismic Waves • Earthquake waves are known as seismic waves & they spread out in all directions from the focus. • The epicenter is the spot on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.

  23. Types of Seismic Waves • Primary (P)-waves: Travel by stretching & compressing land as they pass (like a slinky) • Fastest waves • Secondary (S)-waves: move land side to side • Only travel through solids • Surface waves: move up and down on earth’s surface (like waves on a pond) • cause the most damage

  24. Speed of Seismic Waves • Seismic waves move faster through solids than liquids because solids are more dense. • For example, waves would move faster through the rocky crust than through the liquid outer core.

  25. Volcanoes and Plate Boundaries • Volcanoes often form where two oceanic plates collide or where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate.

  26. Volcanoes and Plate Boundaries

  27. Objective 4.c. • Examine weather forecasting and describe how meteorologists use atmospheric features and technology to predict the weather. • Advanced – Predict a change in weather based on differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity.

  28. Types of Fronts • 1. A coldfront forms when a cold air mass pushes under a warm air mass. Cumulus clouds form and thunderstormsmay occur. • 2. A warm front forms when a warm air mass moves up and over a cold air mass. Cirrus and stratus clouds form and light, steady precipitation occurs.

  29. Air Pressure • High-pressure systemsdevelop when an air mass sinks toward the ground. • Causes clear, calm weather. • Low-pressure systemsdevelop when an air mass rises. • Causes clouds and precipitation

  30. Weather Map Symbols

  31. Jet Streams • Jet streams are high-speed winds 10-15 km above the Earth’s surface. They form when cold air from the poles meets warm air from near the equator.

  32. Jet Streams

  33. Coriolis Effect

  34. Objective 4.h. • Justify why an imaginary hurricane might or might not hit a particular area, using important technological resources.

  35. What is a Hurricane? • A hurricane is a low-pressure system that forms over tropical oceans.

  36. Paths of Hurricanes • Trade winds cause hurricanes to move east to west near the equator. • As hurricanes move north, they begin to turn back to the eastbecause of westerlies.

  37. Strength of Hurricanes • Hurricanes weaken as they move over cooler water or land. • Lower air pressure = faster wind speeds.

  38. Hurricane Paths

  39. Objective 4.d. • Research the importance of the conservation of renewable and nonrenewable resources, and justify methods that might be useful in decreasing the human impact on global warming.

  40. Two Types of Resources • Renewableresources are resources that are constantly being recycled or replaced by nature. For example, sunlight, water, and air. • Nonrenewable resources are resources that are used up more quickly than they are replaced. For example, minerals and metals.

  41. Ways to Conserve Energy • 1. Turn off lights when not in use. • 2. Car pool or use public transportation. • 3. Walk or ride a bike. • 4. Use energy efficient appliances or bulbs. • What are some other ways to conserve energy?