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The Road To Revolution. The Deep Roots of Revolution. New ideas took hold in America from the 1 st settlements Change came easier to Americans Less acceptant of old ways Able to make the world over. The Enlightenment. Basic philosophy

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the deep roots of revolution
The Deep Roots of Revolution
  • New ideas took hold in America from the 1st settlements
    • Change came easier to Americans
    • Less acceptant of old ways
    • Able to make the world over
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Basic philosophy
    • “Darkness” of the past ages could be corrected by using human reason to solve many of the days problems.
    • John Locke & Jean-Jacque Rousseau
what is the social contract
What is the “social contract”?
  • In a state of nature there is no law. Man entered into a contract with rulers to rule them but protect their natural rights.
what are natural rights
What are “natural rights”?
  • Rights every human has been given by God that he doesn’t involve himself with but must be protected by rulers.
    • Economic and political freedoms
what are a government s responsibilities
What are a government’s responsibilities?
  • Governments must promote well being of its citizens and protect their rights.
what if governments fail in this attempt to protect natural rights
What if governments fail in this attempt to protect natural rights?
  • Citizens have the right to rebel and enter into a new contract with other rulers that will protect their natural rights.
what is republicanism
What is republicanism?
  • People subordinate their private, selfish interests to the good of the community.
  • Stability depends on virtuous citizenry and civil involvement.
who were the radical whigs
Who were the “radical whigs”?
  • Political comments made by radical whigs in England affect the way the colonists view their relationship with Europe.
  • Whigs are afraid of arbitrary power exercised my monarchs because it threatens liberty.
  • Warned citizens to be on guard against encroachments against liberty by arbitrary powers.
americans respond
Americans respond
  • Americans alert to threats to liberty.
  • Americans were used to running their own affairs and distance from the mother country weakens their authority in America.
mercantilism justifies british control over colonies
Mercantilism justifies British control over Colonies
  • Wealth was power and could be measured by amount of gold and silver
  • Export more than import (balance of trade)
  • Colonies gave a distinct advantage for raw materials and a market for finished products.
london saw colonies as tenants
London saw colonies as tenants
  • Expected to furnish raw materials
  • Not to compete with British manufacturers
  • Not worry about self sufficiency
navigation laws
Navigation Laws
  • To regulate mercantilist policies in colonies
  • Aimed at Dutch shippers trying to gain American trade
three rules
Three rules
  • 1. All commerce had to be carried on British and American ships only
  • 2. All products bound for America had to stop in Britain first and pay a tax
  • 3. Some products could only be sold to Britain (tobacco) (expanded later)
currency
Currency
  • Problems for Americans
    • Bought more British goods than sold
    • Creates cash shortage in America of gold and silver
what colonists do
What colonists do
  • Barter for products
  • Print their own money (inflation)
  • Parliament stops printing of money or trading with money except gold and silver
  • American interests being sacrificed for British merchants
  • They could also nullify any colonial law they did not like (scared Americans)
merits of mercantilism
Merits of Mercantilism
  • Wasn’t that burdensome
  • Americans disregarded them anyway
  • Liberal bounties for colonial producers of ship parts
  • Virginia tobacco planters have a ready market
  • Protection of the British navy
problems of mercantilism
Problems of Mercantilism
  • Stifled economic initiative
  • Dependency on British creditors and agents
  • Felt used and humiliated
  • Was America an emerging nation?
why do the british move to tax the american colonies
Why do the British move to tax the American colonies?
  • Huge debt after the 7 Years War
  • Felt the Americans should pay their share for the protection Britain gives them.
  • Changes the relationship between Britain and the Colonies.
  • King George III wants larger role in controlling the colonies.
george grenville
George Grenville
  • New finance minister
  • Begins to strictly enforce Navigation Acts
  • Wants to raise money to pay the nation’s debts.
the sugar act
The Sugar Act
  • 1764
  • To raise money for the crown
  • Increased duty for sugar from West Indies
  • Agitation lowered the tax.
  • Beginning to change the relationship with Britain and colonies
quartering act of 1765
Quartering Act of 1765
  • Required certain towns to provide food and quarters for British troops stationed in America.
  • Americans don’t feel a need for the troops after the French & Indian War is won.
the stamp act1
The Stamp Act
  • Purpose
    • To raise money to support the military in America
    • Tax on paper products using stamps and required many new uses for stamps
    • Want colonist to pay their fair share for their own defense
americans respond1
Americans respond
  • Struck at liberties that they have always assumed was theirs
  • Offended their basic rights as Englishmen
    • Offenders could be tried in admiralty court
      • What about jury of you peers?
    • Felt rights were being taken away
no taxation without representations
“No taxation without representations”
  • Americans felt they were not represented in Parliament
  • They had always taxed themselves
virtual representation
Virtual Representation
  • Parliament said colonists were represented
  • Parliament represented all of its British subjects
  • Colonists felt this was robbery by taking their money without giving them a voice in their own taxation laws
conspiracy
Conspiracy?
  • Was this to whip colonists into shape?
  • Americans begin to attack the Stamp Act
stamp act congress in 1765
Stamp Act Congress in 1765
  • New York City
  • 27 delegates from 9 colonies
  • Statement of rights and grievances and ask for repeal of Stamp Act
    • Appeal ignored in England
    • Began to erode sectional suspicions
    • Step toward colonial unity
non importation agreements
Non importation agreements
  • Stop importing British goods into colonies
  • Americans begin to make own clothes and products
  • Spontaneously united the country for the first time
mobilization
Mobilization
  • Gives citizens chance to participate
  • Get off the sidelines
  • Groups assembled and met
  • Helps revolutionary war fever
sons of liberty
Sons of Liberty
  • Violent and radical groups
  • Enforced the non importation agreements in their own colonies
  • Sometimes violently
  • Used peer pressure and other means
  • Pressured tax collectors and government leaders
tax collecting break down
Tax collecting break down
  • Many tax collectors forced to resign
  • No one to sell stamps
  • Law defied or nullified
england hit hard
England hit hard
  • Non importation agreements affect British trade
  • ¼ of British exports go to America
  • ½ of British shipping devoted to America
  • People thrown out of work
  • British people and businesses call on Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act
repeal
Repeal
  • Parliament could not understand why Americans would not pay their share
  • Colonists rejoice
  • Parliament passes Declaratory Acts
    • Reaffirms Parliament’s right to bind colonies in “all cases whatsoever”
    • England draws line in the sand
    • Colonist want measure of self rule
charles townshend
Charles Townshend
  • Takes over British finance ministry
  • Champagne Charley
  • Promises to deliver taxes with minimum colonial agitation
the townshend acts
The Townshend Acts
  • Tax on tea, glass, lead, paper, paint
  • Tax paid at American ports makes it an internal tax
  • Colonists don’t care for the distinction
  • Tax on tea bothers colonists the most
    • 1 million tea drinkers
the tax
The tax
  • Salaries of governors now paid with tax and not colonial legislatures
    • Another attempt to control colonies
    • New York assembly suspended for not complying with Quartering Act
non importation again
Non importation again
  • Revived
  • Less effective this time
  • Tax not liked but not taken too seriously
  • Too many smuggling tea anyway
troops
Troops
  • Britain land troops in Boston in 1768 to keep order in colonies
  • Soldiers drunk and disorderly
  • Not good Puritans
  • Colonists mocked them
    • Lobster Backs
boston massacre
Boston Massacre
  • March 5, 1770
  • Mob taunting troops
  • First shot?
  • Crispus Attucks killed first
    • Runaway black slave
  • John Adams defends soldiers
    • Get off with minor punishment
  • Paul Revere paints propaganda
    • Well known depiction of Massacre
lord north
Lord North
  • Gets repeal of Townshend Acts
    • Weren’t producing anything but rebellion
  • Left tax on tea
    • To show colonists who rules
  • Begins to insist on enforcing Navigation Acts
sam adams
Sam Adams
  • Master propagandist and engineer of the rebellion
  • Sensitive to infractions of colonial rights
  • Agitator and rebellion organizer
  • Appealed to the trained mob
  • Failed at all other endeavors
committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence
  • Began in Massachusetts 1772
  • 80 towns soon followed
  • Spread spirit of resistance by exchanging letters
  • Kept opposition to British policies alive
next step
Next step
  • Becomes inter-colonial committees
  • House of Burgesses had a standing committee
  • Help spread information and kept sentiment on side of colonies
  • Evolved into the first American Congress
gaspee incident
Gaspee Incident
  • British customs ship had hurt colonial smuggling
  • Ran aground
  • Colonists dressed like Indians order British off boat and burn
  • Investigation reveals nothing
boston tea party
Boston Tea Party
  • British East Indian Company had surplus of tea.
  • Britain gives company monopoly of tea trade
  • Tea would be cheaper even with the tax
  • Americans cry foul
  • Britain wants to enforce the law
the tea party
The Tea Party
  • Colonists dressed up as Indians board the ships in Boston harbor and dump the crates overboard
  • New York and Philadelphia ships return to England
  • Maryland burned boats
  • Charleston seized the ships
effects
Effects
  • Some saw this in defense of liberty
  • British saw it as a violation of property rights
  • Britain will now whip colonists into shape
  • Whigs in Parliament like Edmund Burke are supporting the colonists
intolerable acts coersive acts
Intolerable Acts (Coersive Acts)
  • Passed to control the colonists and punish the people of Boston
  • The Port Act closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for
  • Reduced power of Massachusetts legislature
  • Government officials accused of crime could be tried in England
  • Expanded Quartering Act to include private homes.
    • Colonists are outraged
quebec act
Quebec Act
  • 1774
  • Passed with the Coersive Acts
  • Organized the Canadian lands
  • Accepted by most French Canadians
  • Resented by colonists
provisions
Provisions
  • Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec
  • Set up a government without a representative assembly
  • Extended Quebec’s boundary to the Ohio River
reaction
Reaction
  • Direct attack on American colonies
  • They claimed land in Ohio Valley
  • Afraid similar laws would be enacted in America and take away representative government
  • Resented the spread of Catholicism to their western regions
1 st continental congress
1st Continental Congress
  • Philadelphia
  • Want a redress of grievances
  • 12 of 13 colonies represented
  • Adams, Adams, Washington, Henry
  • Social activities after meetings help pave way for cooperation later on
  • A consultive body
declaration of rights
Declaration of Rights
  • Petition to King urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights
  • Recognized Parliament’s right to regulate commerce
suffolk resolve
Suffolk Resolve
  • Rejected Intolerable Acts and called for their immediate repeal
  • Pushed for colonies to resist by beginning to boycott British goods.
the association
The Association
  • Most important part of the 1st Continental Congress
  • Call for complete boycott of British goods
  • Would be the enforcers of the nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption of British goods
  • Calls for another meeting if needed
lexington and concord
Lexington and Concord
  • Gage sent troops to capture colonial war supplies in Concord
  • Also to arrest rebel leaders
  • April 1775
the shot heard around the world
“The shot heard around the world”
  • No one knows who fired first
  • 8 Americans killed at Lexington
  • Marched on to Concord
  • Warned by Paul Revere and Charles Dawes
  • On return trip met with angry colonists
    • 70 British killed and 300 casualties
    • WAR HAD BEGUN!
imperial strengths
Imperial Strengths
  • Britain had 7.5 million people to 2.5 million in America
  • British wealth and naval supremacy
  • Professional army of 50,000
  • Could afford to hire German Hessians of 30,000
  • British had 50,000 loyal Americans
  • Used Indians that were loyal
imperial weaknesses
Imperial Weaknesses
  • Ireland a thorn in Britain’s side which occupied British troops
  • France wants to strike at Britain
  • Government confused and inept
  • Many British opposed to killing American cousins
  • Whig support of colonists in Parliament
more problems
More problems
  • British difficulties
    • Second rate generals
    • Soldiers brutally treated
    • Provisions scarce
  • Had to conquer America
    • 3000 miles from home
    • Orders from London arrive too late
    • America had no nerve center to capture and end war
american strengths
American strengths
  • Outstanding leadership
    • George Washington
    • Ben Franklin
    • John Adams
    • Marquis de Lafayette
  • Fighting a defensive war
  • Agriculture self sustaining
  • Belief in a just cause
american weaknesses
American weaknesses
  • Badly organized for war
    • No colonial unity
    • Continental Congress grow feeble
  • Jealousy grew between states
    • Did not want to give power up
  • Economic problems
    • Metallic money drained
    • Paper money worthless
  • Prices soar
  • Desertions rose
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