Sojourner Truth. Born 1797, New York Isabelle Baumfree, a slave. Freedom: a New York law -- all slaves over 28 yrs. were freed Inspired by God, changed her name to Sojourner Truth. Sojourner Truth joined the Anti-Slavery Society
Sojourner Truth • Born 1797, New York Isabelle Baumfree, a slave. • Freedom: a New York law -- all slaves over 28 yrs. were freed • Inspired by God, changed her name to Sojourner Truth.
Sojourner Truth • joined the Anti-Slavery Society • became an abolitionist lecturer and a speaker for women's rights, both black and white • died in 1883
Sojourner To sojourn: to stay for a short period of time A sojourner: is someone who . . . Sojourner Truth means . . .
The meeting she addressed: • Ohio 1851 • White, male ministers opposed women’s rights. • Believed men were superior to women. • Believed the Bible told them so.
Women’s Rights • 1840 first women’s rights convention in US • 1851 Sojourner Truth gives Ain’t I a Woman speech • 1861-1865 US Civil War between the N & S • 1867 US Congress defines citizens as "male" • 1870 African American males given voting rights • 1920Women given right to vote, 19th Amendment, 69 YEARS after Sojourner Truth’s speech • 1963 Employers must pay a woman the same as what a man would receive for the same job. Equal Pay Act, comes 112 YEARS after Sojourner Truth’s speech
Read to Get the Gist: “Ain’t I a Woman?” Read this speech silently. Be thinking about the answers to the following questions: • What is the speech about? What is the issue? • Who is the speaker? • What do we know about her? How do we know?
Read to Get the Gist: “Ain’t I a Woman?” When you have finished reading, turn to a partner and discuss the comprehension questions for three minutes. Be sure to cite evidence from the text to support your answers.
Discuss Comprehension Questions • What is the speech about? What is the issue? • Who is the speaker? • What do we know about her? How do we know? • What questions do you have about the speech, the context, Sojourner Truth, etc.?
Reread for Significance • Reread “Ain’t I a Woman” to individually identify what you think are the three most significant sentences or phrases that reveal Sojourner Truth’s argument. • Make a two-column note chart in your Reader's/Writer's Notebooks to record the sentences/phrases you select. Write the sentences/phrases in the left column of their chart. Then, across from each, do a Quick Write to explain what the sentences/phrase reveals about Truth’s argument. • When you are finished, share your significant sentences with two other people.
That man says women need to be helped into carriages and lifted over ditches . . .
I could have ploughed and planted and gathered into barns and no man could head me! I could work as much . . . as a man.
Historical Background U.S. President Thomas Jefferson and slave owner frankly stated that he considered "a woman who brings a child every two years as more profitable than the best man on the farm. . .” Former slave and writer Frederick Douglas said, “My mother was . . . colored, and quite dark. My father was a white man. The opinion was . . . that my master was my father. “The master is frequently compelled to sell this class of his slaves, out of deference to the feelings of his white wife. . .”
and yours holds a quart Wouldn’t you be mean not to let me have my half-measure FULL?* If my cup won’t hold but a pint, *Does she think women’s brains only are 1/2 of men’s?
“Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with HIM.”
“. . .the first woman . . . was strong enough to turn the world upside down . . . these women ought to be able to turn it back . . .”
And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them. Suffragettes 1850 Suffragettes 1920
StepBack: Reflect on Sojourner Truth’s Argument Now that you’ve heard a range of sentences/phrases and explanations all related to Sojourner Truth’s argument, how do you now understand her argument?
StepBack: Reflect on Sentences/Phrases Take a moment to answer the following questions in your Reader's/Writer's Notebooks: • What did you do to choose your sentences and phrases? • What did you do to explain your sentences? • What made the two-column note charts that were shared at the overhead effective?
Interpreting Sojourner Truth’s Speech You’ve read “Ain’t I a Woman” a couple of times, once to get the gist and another time to identify significant sentences/phrases that reveal Sojourner Truth’s argument. Now I would like you to consider how Sojourner Truth would have delivered her argument on that day back in 1851. Your task is to deliver “Ain’t I a Woman” to a small group of your colleagues. Your will have ten minutes to plan and practice delivering this speech.
Interpreting Sojourner Truth’s Speech Study the speech to determine how you will deliver it. Consider Sojourner Truth’s argument, audience, and purpose, and then ask yourself: • What emotions did she want to convey? • How did she want her audience to respond? • What words or phrases would she have emphasized? • Where do you think she would have raised or lowered her voice? There is no one right way to deliver this speech; however, think through why you are delivering it this way and be prepared to justify your delivery using evidence from the text.
Deliver Speech in Groups Get into groups of three. Take turns delivering “Ain’t I a Woman” to each other. After each delivery, the speaker should talk about why s/he decided to deliver the way s/he did. Listeners should be paying attention to how the speaker chose to deliver this speech and the effect on them, the audience. Questions to guide listening • On what words did the speaker choose to put emphasis? • When did the speaker raise or lower his/her voice? • What emotions did the speaker try to convey? What effect did the delivery have on them, the audience?
StepBack: Reflect on Differences in Delivery Take about 5-7 minutes to answer the following in your Reader's/Writer's Notebooks: • What did you consider in thinking about how to deliver your speech? • How did you deliver the speech and why did you make these decisions? • How was your delivery the same or different than that of others in your group? What did you learn about the text from that? • What more do you know now or think about the speech or Sojourner Truth? Be prepared to share your responses to the above questions with the whole group.
Reread Again, WriteAbout, and Engage in an Inquiry-based Discussion Reread the text to answer the following question in your Reader's/Writer's Notebook: Truth keeps repeating the title phrase, "Ain't I a Woman." What does she means by ain't I a woman? Why do you think she keeps repeating the question? After you have written on the question, turn to a partner and take about five minutes to discuss your responses. This partner talk is preparation for a whole group discussion on the same question.
StepBack: Reflect on Inquiry-based Discussion Take a minute to write on the following in your Reader’s/Writer’s Notebook: • What did you learn by engaging in this inquiry-based discussion? • What more did you learn about this text, persuasion, or yourself as a reader?
Reread Again Differently: Truth’s Argument and Methods Do a Quick Write to answer the following question in your Reader’s/Writer’s Notebook: How is Sojourner Truth’s speech persuasive? Cite specific words or lines that you find persuasive.
Methods to Persuade When people speak to persuade, not only do they think about what they’re going to say, but they also think about how they’re going to say. They consider their argument and audience, and try to figure out how to build and support their arguments in ways that are persuasive for their audiences. The strategies they use are their methods.
Methods to Persuade Methods may include such things as: the use and placement of reasons, assertions, & rebuttals to counterarguments; the use of analogies, metaphors, case studies, quotations, facts, etc. to support reasons and opinions; loaded words; repetition of key phrases; appeals to logic, emotions, or ethics; rhetorical questions; etc. The speaker’s purpose for using certain methods might be to establish credibility, grab the reader’s attention, appeal to the reader’s sense of sympathy or pride, cause the reader to stop and think, shock the reader, etc.
Share in Trios: Examine Truth’s Argument and Methods How is Sojourner Truth’s speech persuasive? Share specific lines or phrases that you find persuasive. For each line/phrase discuss the following: • What is Truth saying or doing that is persuasive? What method is she using to persuade? • How does that method work? What effect does it have on you, the listener? • What effect do you think Truth was hoping for from her audience, especially the male ministers who disagreed with her?
Methods to Persuade Whole Group Discussion: • What are some methods Truth uses to persuade? • How does each method work? What effect does it have on the listener? • What effect do you think Truth was hoping for from her audience, especially the male ministers who disagreed with her?
Method: Structure Linked to Purpose and Audience • How does Truth structure her argument? What does she do in each paragraph to advance her argument? • Considering her audience and the context of this speech, why do you think Truth orders the rebuttals to counterarguments the way she does? • What is her method for organizing her argument?
Retrospective Work: Inspiring Change Through Words Take a few minutes to write on the following question in your Reader's/Writer's Notebook before we engage in a whole group discussion on the same questions: • How does Truth inspire change through words? • What would Truth’s opinion be of the Frederick Douglass quote you read on the first day of this unit? Explain.
Co-construct the Characteristics of Effective Persuasive Speeches What did you learn from reading, rereading, listening to, and discussing “Ain’t I a Woman” about the characteristics of effective persuasive speeches?
Inspiring Change: Issues to Speak Out About • At your table, brainstorm issues that affect a group of people, possibly people in your community (school, neighborhood, city, state, etc.), which you could speak out about in order to inspire change in your colleagues’ beliefs or actions. These issues will be what you choose from as topics for the two speeches you will plan and deliver as part of this unit.
Inspiring Change: Issues to Speak Out About (cont.) • The first speech you will plan and deliver in 20 minutes with a partner; the second speech you will plan and deliver on your own after doing some research. With that in mind, brainstorm two different types of topics: (1) those that can be argued using your own experience as evidence, and (2) those that require print/media research. • Write your topics on pieces of chart paper, marking those that you think can be argued with your own experience and those that require print/media research.