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Immigration Chapter 15 Section 2

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Immigration Chapter 15 Section 2. Why Move into the Cities?. Key Words for Section 2: Americanization Movement Tenements and Rowhouses Social Gospel Movement Settlement Houses. Urban Opportunities. Technological boom = industrial strength of the U.S. Result: rapid urbanization –

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Chapter 15

Section 2

why move into the cities
Why Move into the Cities?
  • Key Words for Section 2:
    • Americanization Movement
    • Tenements and Rowhouses
    • Social Gospel Movement
    • Settlement Houses
urban opportunities
Urban Opportunities
  • Technological boom = industrial strength of the U.S.
  • Result:


urbanization –

growth of cities

immigrants settle in cities
Immigrants Settle in Cities
  • Why?
    • Most immigrants became city dwellers because cheapest and most convenient
    • Offered unskilled laborers steady jobs in mills and factories
americanization movement
Americanization Movement
  • assimilate people into the dominant culture
  • Social campaign sponsored by government and citizens
  • Schools and voluntary associations had programs to teach skills needed for citizenship
Many immigrants did not want to abandon traditions
    • Ethnic communities provided social support
    • speak own language & practice their customs and religion
  • Neighborhoods soon overcrowded
migration from country to city
Migration from Country to City
  • improvements in farming technology good for some farmers but not others
  • Inventions made farming more efficient but meant that fewer laborers were needed to work the land
  • Farms merging caused many rural people to move to city for work
african americans moving to cities
African Americans Moving to Cities
  • Those farming lost livelihoods
  • escaping racial violence, economic hardship, and political oppression
  • Segregation and discrimination in Northern cities too
  • Job competition caused more racial tension
  • working-class family:
    • live outskirts and face transportation problems
    • rent cramped rooms in the city
Working Class Homes:
    • row houses - single-family homes with a shared wall began
As working-class left central city, immigrants moved behind them
  • Tenements were overcrowded and unsanitary
Housing the Poor:

Dumbbell Tenements: cheap housing units which looked like a dumbbell with many housing units sharing a corridor.

setting standards in the city
Setting Standards in the City:
  • New York City set minimum standards for plumbing/ventilation in apartments
    • Landlords installed air shafts which were used as garbage cans and attracted vermin making situation worse
  • New forms of mass transit let workers go to work easily
    • Street cars in San Francisco
    • Electric subways in Boston
mass transit catches on
Mass Transit Catches on:
  • mass transit networks linked city neighborhoods to one another
  • However:
    • cities struggled to repair old systems and building new ones
  • Problem supplying drinking water
  • Cities building public waterworks to support increasing demand
  • Residents of cities had little or no
  • Few homes had indoor plumbing
    • residents had to

collect water in

pails from faucets

on the street and

heat it for bathing

how to make water safe
How to make water safe:
  • It is needed to control disease
  • filtration and chlorination introduced in early 1900’s
  • Early 20th century, many city dwellers still had no access to safe water
  • Horse manure piled up on streets
  • Sewage flowed through open gutters
  • Factories spewed foul smoke into the air
  • Garbage dumped in streets
Though private firms hired to clean streets, outhouses, collect garbage, etc… they did bad jobs
  • By 1900, many cities developed sewer lines and created sanitation departments
  • As population increased, so did thieves
  • New York first to organize full-time police force with salary
  • Too small to impact crime problem
  • Limited water supply
  • Major fires occurred in almost every city during 1870’s and 1880’s
  • Most cities packed in wooden dwellings
  • Use of candles and kerosene heaters
  • Earthquakes in San Francisco
fire protection
Fire Protection
  • First were volunteers and not always available
  • By 1900, most cities had full-time professional fire departments
  • Introduction of practical automatic fire sprinkler in 1874 and the replacement of wood as building material with brick, stone, or concrete
reformers mobilize
Reformers Mobilize
  • Concerned citizens work to find solutions
  • Social welfare reformers targeted poverty
the settlement house movement
The Settlement House Movement
  • Social Gospel Movement
    • Early reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor
    • Began the idea of Settlement Houses
settlement houses
Settlement Houses
  • Community centers in slum neighborhoods
  • Many workers lived there to learn problems of urbanization and create solutions
  • Run largely by middle-class, college-educated women
Provided educational, cultural, and social services such as classes in English and health
  • Sent nurses into homes of sick and provided aid needed to secure “support for deserted women, insurance for bewildered widows, damages for injured operators, furniture from clutches of installment store
today s terms
Today’s Terms:
  • Political machine
  • Graft
  • Boss Tweed
  • Tammany Hall