PRO-SOCIAL AND ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR UNIT 2 – AOS 1
Social relationship – is used to describe the connection or association between two or more people, especially with regard to how they think, feel and behave towards each other. • Social behaviour – refers to any behaviour where interaction occurs between two or more people.May include: smiling at someone, receiving advice etc.
Pro-social behaviour: positive social behaviour • Anti-social behaviour: negative social behaviour
Pro-social behaviour • Everyday acts of helping others that involves personal cost to the helper. • True pro-social behaviour intentional, in that the helper deliberately tries to provide assistance. • The behaviour must benefit or help another person, group or society. • Eg: opening a door, donating to charity, volunteering.
The case of Kitty Genovese • Genovese was murdered in a New York street in 1964 at around 3am after returning home from work in a bar – she was attacked by a man with a knife • She tried to escape but her attacker caught her and repeatedly stabbed her • Kitty’s scream for help woke 38 of her neighbors – many switched on their lights and watched for up to 35 minutes • Only one called the police – no one went to her aid • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JozmWS6xYEw&feature=search
Key Question: • Why did the 37 other people do nothing? 2 minute task: • List some situations where you have helped someone in need • Where you by yourself or in a group?
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour • Situational factors • Social norms • Personal factors
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Noticing the situation • People in a group are more likely to be focused on their interactions with each other than on their surroundings, as compared with when they are alone. • Noticing an incident that is different or unusual and may involve someone needing help is a necessary first step in making a helping response.
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Interpreting the situation • Many situations in which help may be required are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore people cannot always be sure that a helping response is appropriate or required. • The less ambiguous the situation the more likely an individual will help.
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Taking responsibility • You are unlikely to intervene and help unless you believe it is your responsibility to do so. • When someone else is nearby in an emergency situation we may leave the responsibility to them to help • Bystander effect: is the tendency for individuals to be less likely to help another person when other bystanders are present, or believed to be present, as compared with when they are alone. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcowGVd6GqY&feature=related
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: social norms • We help others because we believe we are ‘supposed’ to help Reciprocity norm • an unwritten rule that we should give what we receive or expect to receive (reciprocate) • states we should help others who help us E.g. help a friend with their h/w you would expect them to help you out when you need a favour
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: social norms Social responsibility norm • help those who need help b/c it is our duty or responsibility to do so Eg give up your seat on a bus, help someone with directions (we are however selective with social Responsibility norm – more likely to help victims of bushfires, flood or burglary b/c they are not responsible for bringing about their hardship)
Tasks: • Learning Activity 10.7: Q4 • Learning Activity 10.9 Media Response – bystander intervention • Due Tuesday 30th August.
Putting it together... • Learning Activity 10.8: Summary of factors that influence helping • Learning Activity 10.9: Media response – bystander intervention
Altruism • Refers to pro social behaviour focused on the wellbeing or benefit of others without any thought to personal gain or reward • Altruism involves no personal gain, reward or benefit • Genuine altrusim – a passer-by who puts themselves in front of a gunman to save another (element of personal risk)
Altruism • Many of us assume we would act instinctively to help a stranger in trouble. But we might be a lot more selfish then we think • Complete Learning Activity 10.10 • Complete Learning Activity 10.11
Altruism? These internationally famous rock stars and movie actors are deeply involved in various activities to benefit starving or disadvantaged people in poor and/or war torn countries. Q: can their pro-social behaviour be described as alturism?
Factors influencing reluctance to help • Diffusion of responsibility • Audience inhibition • Cost-benefit analysis
Factors influencing reluctance to help: diffusion of responsibility • Belief that in a situation where help is required and others are present one or more OTHER people will or should take responsibility for helping • Leads each individual to feel less responsible for helping than when alone b/c assume someone else will take on the responsibility of helping • Explains why no one helps when many people are present in a situation where help is required
Anti-social behaviour • Is any behaviour that is disruptive or harmful to the wellbeing or property of another person or to the functioning of a group or society • Typically involves actions that break laws, rules or social norms
Aggression • In psychology, aggression is often defined as any behaviour intended to cause physical or psychological harm to a person (including self), animal or object • LA 10.20 Q. 4 a-j
Aggression: explanations • No single, commonly agreed-upon explanation: • Psychodynamic perspective • Ethological perspective • Biological perspective • Social learning perspective Task: • summarise each of these perspectives (Pg. 438-48)
Social learning perspective • Learn aggression through watching other people being aggressive and then copying their aggressive behaviour Observational learning • Involves watching someone elses behaviour and the consequences of their behaviour and then modeling or imitating the behaviour
Bandura (1965) – explaining human aggression • Identified 4 conditions that are necessary for observational learning to occur • Must pay attention to models behaviour • Must remember the models behaviour • Must have the ability to reproduce or imitate the behaviour • Must be motivated to perform the behaviour
Motivated to do or not to do If observe behaviour being reinforced (e.g. rewarded) = more likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour If observe behaviour not being reinforced/or being punished = less likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour Young children learn from watching sporting idols, watching characters in movies or parents
The BOBO DOLL pg 446 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCETgT_Xfzg
THE BOBO DOLL • In your workbooks, identify: • The aim • A possible hypothesis • Participants • Procedure • The main findings of the study