pro social and anti social behaviour n.
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  2. Social relationship – is used to describe the connection or association between two or more people, especially with regard to how they think, feel and behave towards each other. • Social behaviour – refers to any behaviour where interaction occurs between two or more people.May include: smiling at someone, receiving advice etc.

  3. Pro-social behaviour: positive social behaviour • Anti-social behaviour: negative social behaviour

  4. Pro-social behaviour • Everyday acts of helping others that involves personal cost to the helper. • True pro-social behaviour intentional, in that the helper deliberately tries to provide assistance. • The behaviour must benefit or help another person, group or society. • Eg: opening a door, donating to charity, volunteering.

  5. The case of Kitty Genovese • Genovese was murdered in a New York street in 1964 at around 3am after returning home from work in a bar – she was attacked by a man with a knife • She tried to escape but her attacker caught her and repeatedly stabbed her • Kitty’s scream for help woke 38 of her neighbors – many switched on their lights and watched for up to 35 minutes • Only one called the police – no one went to her aid •

  6. Key Question: • Why did the 37 other people do nothing? 2 minute task: • List some situations where you have helped someone in need • Where you by yourself or in a group?

  7. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour • Situational factors • Social norms • Personal factors

  8. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Noticing the situation • People in a group are more likely to be focused on their interactions with each other than on their surroundings, as compared with when they are alone. • Noticing an incident that is different or unusual and may involve someone needing help is a necessary first step in making a helping response.

  9. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Interpreting the situation • Many situations in which help may be required are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore people cannot always be sure that a helping response is appropriate or required. • The less ambiguous the situation the more likely an individual will help.

  10. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors Taking responsibility • You are unlikely to intervene and help unless you believe it is your responsibility to do so. • When someone else is nearby in an emergency situation we may leave the responsibility to them to help  • Bystander effect: is the tendency for individuals to be less likely to help another person when other bystanders are present, or believed to be present, as compared with when they are alone.

  11. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: situational factors

  12. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: social norms • We help others because we believe we are ‘supposed’ to help Reciprocity norm • an unwritten rule that we should give what we receive or expect to receive (reciprocate) • states we should help others who help us E.g. help a friend with their h/w you would expect them to help you out when you need a favour

  13. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: social norms Social responsibility norm • help those who need help b/c it is our duty or responsibility to do so Eg give up your seat on a bus, help someone with directions (we are however selective with social Responsibility norm – more likely to help victims of bushfires, flood or burglary b/c they are not responsible for bringing about their hardship)

  14. Factors influencing pro-social behaviour: personal factors

  15. Tasks: • Learning Activity 10.7: Q4 • Learning Activity 10.9 Media Response – bystander intervention • Due Tuesday 30th August.

  16. Putting it together... • Learning Activity 10.8: Summary of factors that influence helping • Learning Activity 10.9: Media response – bystander intervention

  17. Altruism • Refers to pro social behaviour focused on the wellbeing or benefit of others without any thought to personal gain or reward • Altruism involves no personal gain, reward or benefit • Genuine altrusim – a passer-by who puts themselves in front of a gunman to save another (element of personal risk)

  18. Altruism • Many of us assume we would act instinctively to help a stranger in trouble. But we might be a lot more selfish then we think • Complete Learning Activity 10.10 • Complete Learning Activity 10.11

  19. Altruism? These internationally famous rock stars and movie actors are deeply involved in various activities to benefit starving or disadvantaged people in poor and/or war torn countries. Q: can their pro-social behaviour be described as alturism?

  20. Factors influencing reluctance to help • Diffusion of responsibility • Audience inhibition • Cost-benefit analysis

  21. Factors influencing reluctance to help: diffusion of responsibility • Belief that in a situation where help is required and others are present one or more OTHER people will or should take responsibility for helping • Leads each individual to feel less responsible for helping than when alone b/c assume someone else will take on the responsibility of helping • Explains why no one helps when many people are present in a situation where help is required

  22. Anti-social behaviour • Is any behaviour that is disruptive or harmful to the wellbeing or property of another person or to the functioning of a group or society • Typically involves actions that break laws, rules or social norms

  23. Aggression • In psychology, aggression is often defined as any behaviour intended to cause physical or psychological harm to a person (including self), animal or object • LA 10.20 Q. 4 a-j

  24. Aggression: explanations • No single, commonly agreed-upon explanation: • Psychodynamic perspective • Ethological perspective • Biological perspective • Social learning perspective Task: • summarise each of these perspectives (Pg. 438-48)

  25. Social learning perspective • Learn aggression through watching other people being aggressive and then copying their aggressive behaviour Observational learning • Involves watching someone elses behaviour and the consequences of their behaviour and then modeling or imitating the behaviour

  26. Bandura (1965) – explaining human aggression • Identified 4 conditions that are necessary for observational learning to occur • Must pay attention to models behaviour • Must remember the models behaviour • Must have the ability to reproduce or imitate the behaviour • Must be motivated to perform the behaviour

  27. Motivated to do or not to do If observe behaviour being reinforced (e.g. rewarded) = more likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour If observe behaviour not being reinforced/or being punished = less likely to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour Young children learn from watching sporting idols, watching characters in movies or parents

  28. The BOBO DOLL pg 446

  29. THE BOBO DOLL • In your workbooks, identify: • The aim • A possible hypothesis • Participants • Procedure • The main findings of the study