Pro- and Anti- Social Behaviour Chapter 10 Pages 323-350
Pro Social Behaviour • What is it?
Pro Social Behaviour Any behaviour that is performed with the intention of helping someone else.. • What are some examples??? Giving blood.....
Factors influencing pro-social behaviour • Situational Factors: • Bystander effect: the more witnesses that are present at an emergency the less likely people will help. (kitty Genovese case) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJqhWkTGu5o • Diffusion of responsibility: a tendency for us not to help those in need when there are other people present because we believe that other people will help.
Social Factors • Social norms: the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. Failure to stick to these rules can result in severe punishments such as being excluded from a group. (helping others because of the rules that society enforces upon us) • Reciprocity principle: help others who have helped us or help them if they are willing to help us in return. • Social responsibility norm: we should help those who are worse off than us.
Personal Factors • Empathy: the ability to understand and experience situations and emotions from another person’s perspective. • Mood: how we feel. We are more likely to help if we are in a good mood. • Competence: having the ability to help those in need. If you know you are competent enough to help then you are more likely to help.
Did you know that attractive people are more likely to be helped than people who are considered to be unattractive.
ALTRUISM • Unselfish concern for the welfare of others. • Altruistic acts are performed often at the expense of the person executing the act. • This is different to pro-social behaviour because an altruistic act requires nothing in return. Can you think of any examples of altruistic behaviours?
Anti-social behaviour is any behaviour intended to damage interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable... Any act that is performed with the intention of causing deliberate pain, discomfort or disruption to an individual, group or property. For an act to be anti-social is must be: • Deliberate • Voluntary • Intended to cause harm
Diffusion of responsibility: less likely to do anything when there are lots of people around. • Audience inhibition: tendency for people to be reluctant to help others when in the presence of company. Don’t want to risk being embarrassed if the person doesn’t need help. • Cost-benefit analysis: evaluating the situation before we decide to help. We weigh up the pros and cons before we make a decision. We weigh up the personal and social costs of helping. If the cost is low then we are more likely to help. *Read Pg 342 example*
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY How do we learn?? Social learning theory proposes that all our behaviours are learned and occur as a result of whether they are rewarded or punished. Examples?????
Albert Bandura • Came up with the social learning theory. • He suggested that we learn pro social and anti social behaviours through observation and whether their behaviours are rewarded or punished. • Modelling: a form of learning whereby we observe the behaviours and consequences of others and then replicate it.
Bandura’sBoBo Doll experiment. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCo33v3Fwc4&feature=related 4min: goes over research method concepts. No footage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCETgT_Xfzg 5:27min: more footage
Aggression Aggression: behaviour that is intended to cause harm.
ETHOLOGICAL APPROACH • Konrad Lopez 1930’s • Ethology is the study of animal behaviour in their natural habitats. • All creatures have an aggressive instinct. • Uses a releaser (an environmental stimulus that triggers aggressive behaviour) in his study because instinct alone is not enough there needs to be a trigger. • Eg: if a child is raised in an aggressive family these aggressive genes will be passed down . If the right trigger is activated the child will then act aggressively.
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH • Hormones play a part in our aggressive behaviour • Brain damage can cause someone to be more aggressive. (Phineas Gage) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXiM-nDYzX0 5min
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH Sigmund Freud • The psychodynamic approach looks at our unconscious desires and wishes and how they form the motives for our behaviours and actions. • 2 instincts towards life and survival , 1)libido (sexual urge/desire) 2)Thanatos (unconscious urge to die which is a more destructive instinct) • Aggression is an instinct. • When we are growing up we suppress our aggressive tendencies because they are not acceptable but as we get older if given the correct circumstances then we can perform aggressive/ violent acts.
SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH • Albert Bandura • Aggression is learned from parents and people who we associate with. • We model their behaviour. • Look at rewards and punishments
HOMEWORK • ACTIVITY • 10.3 questions 1 and 2 • 10.4 question 2 • 10.12 questions 1,2,3 • 10.3 questions 1 and 3