Chapter 11.2: The Russian Empire - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 11.2: The Russian Empire

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Chapter 11.2: The Russian Empire

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  1. Chapter 11.2: The Russian Empire

  2. KievanRussia > 1st Capital of United Russia = Kiev A. 862 CE Viking Rurik founded 1st Russian kingdom; 1st city = Novgorod; then moved capital to Kiev B. 882 Viking Oleg captured Kiev & took title “Grand Prince of Kiev” C. Early 900s Kievan grand princes attacked Constantinople to gain riches 1. 911 Kiev and Constantinople signed treaty = trading partners

  3. II. Vladimir I: 980-1015CE Observed major religions 988 adopted Byzantine Christianity as official religion 1. 989 baptized all citizens of Kiev 2. Many Russians forced to convert to Christianity 3. Emperor supreme ruler of church Principalities D. Effects of new Religion 1. Byzantine priests introduced Cyrillic alphabet, icon paintings, domed church 2. Cyrillic alphabet & Greek instead of Latin cut Russia off from western culture 3. Became great civilization during Middle Ages

  4. Baptism of Vladimir

  5. Russian Principalities

  6. III. Golden Years of Kievan Russia 1019-1054 Yaroslav the Wise, reign = Golden Rule 1. Russia center of trade 2. Contact w/ royal families of western Europe a. married daughters to European kings 3. Russian Legal code written down a. no death penalty or torture 4. 1st Russian library 5. Expanded territory Four social classes 1. prince and family 2. Boyars, landed nobles and rich merchants 3. clergy 4. peasants

  7. C. 1054 Yaroslav died & civil war erupted 1. Divided realm among sons instead of passing onto his eldest (the custom) 2. Trading partner Constantinople destroyed & trade suffered 3. Raids by nomads increased

  8. IV. Mongol Invasion Batu Khan invaded and conquered Kievan Russia 1240 1. Cruel in warfare 2. allowed local customs, princes and language 3. massive tributes 4. isolation – cut off from ideas 5. Mongols ruled southern Russia for 200 years

  9. V. Ivan I: named ruler of Moscow, Grand Prince of all Russia by Mongols (1325-1341) A. Tax collector “Ivan the Moneybag” B. Asked patriarch to move to Moscow 1. Moscow became center of Eastern Orthodox Church C. Church became Russian ally D. Slowly gained control of land

  10. VI. Ivan III: Grand Prince of Moscow 1462-1505 A. “Ivan the Great”; took title Czar B. Byzantine Empire = great influence 1. Married niece of last Byzantine Emperor C. Accomplishments 1. expanded Russian territory 2. refused to pay tribute to Mongols leading way for independence = standoff at Urga River a. when he died, Russia was united andfree from Mongol rule 3. people spoke one language – Slavic 4. princes served one ruler – czar 5. Ivan III seen as successor of Byzantine emperor and protector of EasternOrthodox Church 6. rebuilt Moscow

  11. Chapter 11.3: The Turks

  12. I. The Rise of the Turks • Muslim empire of Abbasid bought Turkish children for use as slaves and soldiers • Persians ended Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad 945 • Turks migrated toward Baghdad- became Muslim 1. Seljuk Turks grew in number and strength 2. Captured Baghdad from Persian -1055 a. illiterate b. embraced Islam – built mosques and libraries c. leaders called themselves sultans

  13. D. Seljuk’s defeated a Byzantine army 1. Battle at Manzikert - 1071 – crushed Byzantine Empire a. captured Jerusalem 2. Byzantine leaders called on Western Europeans for aid a. This call for help led to the Crusades E. Last of the strong Seljuk leaders, Malik Shah died 1092 1. Empire disintegrated into a loose collection of minor kingdoms

  14. II. The Crusades 1095/6 First Crusade called by Pope Urban II Crusaders arrived in Constantinople and were directed to the Turks 1. Seljuk Turks taken by surprise 2. Christians captured Jerusalem 1099; massacred Jewish and Muslim inhabitants C. Muslims recaptured Jerusalem in 1187, under leadership of Saladin 1. truce signed btwn Richard I (Lion Hearted) and Saladin 2. Jerusalem to Muslims, but western Christians had access to holy places for pilgrimages

  15. III. Turks Face the Mongols A. Mongols = nomads from the Asian steppes 1. grew powerful under the leader Genghis Khan and conquered China 2. brutal; slaughtered whole populations 3. Largest land empire in history 4. did not know how to rule B. Hulagu (grandson of Genghis) made his way to Baghdad in 1258 1. Conquered Baghdad and killed thousands 2. wrapped last Abbasid caliph in a carpet and had him trampled 3. short lived empire IV. Ottoman Turks would invade and bring the fall of Constantinople and Byzantine Empire in 1453

  16. The End!