the arab empire of the umayyads 661 750 n.
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The Arab Empire of the Umayyads (661-750). Chapter 6 (parts 3+4 of 5). Umayyad Build Arab Empire. Umayyad clan in control, expand Arab empire. Umayyad empire not intent on spreading religion (not as religious as next empire). Arabs United by Abu Bakr.

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umayyad build arab empire
Umayyad Build Arab Empire

Umayyad clan in control, expand Arab empire

Umayyad empire not intent on spreading religion (not as religious as next empire)

arabs united by abu bakr
Arabs United by Abu Bakr

Ridda Wars = Abu Bakr successfully defeats opposing Arab tribes

This unites Arabs, and allows them to quickly expand their territory

byzantine empire also weak

Arabs helped by people living in Byzantine Empire:

Many Arabs living in Byzantine Empire helped

Christians in Syria and Egypt helped (Byzantines taxed and persecuted them, Muslims would not

Byzantine Empire Also Weak

Byzantine Empire lasted a few hundred years longer, but was greatly weakened

problem of succession rears its ugly head
Problem of Succession Rears Its Ugly Head

Uthman murdered in 656, sparking clan violence/civil war

Caliph = Muslim ruler

Uthman was Umayyad (rival of Muhammad) thus not very popular

Most Muslims wanted Ali (Muhammad’s son-in-law) as caliph

battle of siffin 657
Battle of Siffin (657)

Supporters angry at Ali and turn on him

Ali about to defeat Umayyad at Battle of Siffin

Ali persuaded to negotiate with Umayyad

Umayyad now in full control of the Arab empire

Ali assassinated and his son Hasan forced to give up claim to caliphate

Umayyad name Mu’Awiya as next caliph

slide11

Shia

Sunni

Vs.

the sunni shia shi ite split
The Sunni-Shia (Shi’ite) Split

In Karbala (in 680), Ali’s 2nd son, Husayn, killed by Umayyad (Sunni and Shia have fought ever since)

sunni umayyad expand arab empire
Sunni Umayyad Expand Arab Empire

Temporarily solving issue of succession, Umayyad expand Arab empire

Build biggest empire since Rome, and control Spain to central Asia

charles martel
Charles Martel

Arab advance into Europe stopped by Charles Martel at Poitiers

arabs control non arabs
Arabs Control Non-Arabs

Umayyad empire so large it controlled many non-Arabs and non-Muslims

Muslims treated best in empire (first-class citizens

No taxes on Muslims except the zakat (charity tax)

umayyad stop intermarriage
Umayyad Stop Intermarriage

Don’t want converts, less money in taxes coming in

Kept warriors separated from populations so wouldn’t intermarry

Too difficult to stop intermarriage

Mawali = converts to Islam, still had to pay jizya (tax on non believers)

So Umayyad weren’t focused on converting people to Islam

Little incentive to convert, so most didn’t

dhimmis
Dhimmis

The non-Muslims

umayyad women
Umayyad Women

Women had more status in Umayyad empire than in areas it conquered

Muhammad had preached treating women well

Hadiths – traditions set by Muhammad (such as treating women well

discontent of umayyad grows
Discontent of Umayyad Grows

Umayyad leaders living lavishly

Stop fighting wars, build marble palaces

Muslims getting very upset

end of umayyad
End of Umayyad

Battle on the River Zab (750)

Abbasid defeat Umayyad, get Damascus, control Arab empire