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KMT and the restoration of the Nation. Outline : The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland ? The US economic support to the ROC KMT’s reform Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps Who’s army? The nation’s or the Chiang family’s. The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland ?.

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kmt and the restoration of the nation
KMT and the restoration of the Nation
  • Outline:
    • The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland?
    • The US economic support to the ROC
    • KMT’s reform
    • Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps
    • Who’s army? The nation’s or the Chiang family’s
the korean war fight back to the mainland
The Korean War  fight back to the Mainland?
  • The Korean War broke out in June 1950. Chiang Kai-shek intended to fight back to the Mainland by supporting South Korea.
  • After the Chinese Communist Party joined the war, General MacArthur and some pro-Chiang American senators suggested to accept the ROC’s military support.
  • President Truman denied this proposal, as he feared that this would trigger a new war on Mainland China.
In April 1951, President Truman removed General MacArthur from all his posts and duties. This crushed Chiang Kai-shek’s plan of recovering the Mainland.
  • On the other hand, the CCP directly clashed with the US in the Korean War. Anti-communism voices were high, while many pro-PRC American officials resigned.
  • Under this circumstance, the ROC became the only contactable “Chinese regime” for the US.
the us s economic support to the roc
The US’s economic support to the ROC
  • The US economic support to the ROC began in the end of 1950, with significant amount of aid being given from 1951.
  • This aid enabled the KMT regime, which yet to recover from WWII and domestic turmoil, to stand up again in Taiwan.
  • The American’s purposes for giving the aid were:
    • To stabilize economy
    • To make Taiwan self-sufficient
    • To facilitate the US’s military activities in East Asia
The US’s economic aid lasted for 15 years (1950-1965), with a total of nearly 1.5 billion USD.
  • In average, the ROC received about 100 million USD a year, which wasequivalent to 1/10 of the ROC’s GDP at that time.

p.s.: Perhaps some of you can do presentations on the issue of

the Westerners’ economic and military support in Asian

countries (e.g. The Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia)

kmt s reform
KMT’s Reform
  • After retreating to Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek was determined to thoroughly reorganize the party-state system.
  • The first thing was to rebuild his authority so that party members' loyalty and faith to him could be reconsolidated.
  • In August 1950, the KMT formed a Central Reform Committee. All members were trusted followers of Chiang Kai-shek and his son, Chiang Ching-kuo.
  • Faction leaders and many high-ranked figures, including son of the ROC’s founding father Dr. Sun Yat-sen, were excluded.
The KMT learned from Soviet Russia’s Leninist party-state structure, and set up party branches in the military, governmental offices, schools, all sorts of industrial and business unions, and even civil and cultural organizations.
  • In other words, the whole nation was tightly bound to and closely monitored by the KMT.
  • For the first time, Chiang Kai-shek gained a total control over the part (and consequently, the nation).
chiang ching kuo and the china youth corps
Chiang Ching-kuo and the China Youth Corps
  • Chiang Kai-shek reckoned that the KMT’s biggest failure on Mainland China was not be able to control the minds of the youth.
  • in October 1952, Chiang Ching-kuo established the China Youth Corps to promote “proper” and “patriotic” extracurricular activities.
  • Students at all level were “encouraged” (institutionally forced) to participate in CYC’s activities.
All students and youth aged between 16 and 25 were automatically classified as members of the CYC.
  • Those who refused to join the CYC would be dropped out from school.
  • Besides, Chiang Ching-kuo also decided to integrate the KMT and the ROC’s foundational doctrine - The Three Principles of the People - into school curriculum.
“The Three Principles of the People” was a required subject of the nationwide university entrance exam, and was also an obligatory course for all university freshmen.
  • The CYC had its own publishing service, issuing magazines and pamphlets to be displayed in all schools and public libraries.
taking control of the military
Taking control of the military
  • Chiang Kai-shek felt that the KMT’s insufficiency in political education was the major reason for its military failure on the Mainland.
  • In March 1950, a “political bureau” headed by Chiang Ching-kuo was formed under the Ministry of Defense to ensure total political control over the military.
Orders issued by military officers at all levels must also be approved by corresponding political officers.
  • The five principles for the military were: doctrine, leader, nation, duty, and honor. “Leader” even came before nation.
  • The number of recruits into the KMT was one of political officers’ “KPI”.
All military servicemen, generals and soldiers alike, must receive mandatory political education on every Thursday.
  • Only KMT members were allowed to be instructors of political courses.
  • Many of the generals retreated to Taiwan had political ambitions. In order to prevent possible coup, many were forced to retire or stripped from post.